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Flashcards in LD 34 Deck (58):
1

No pulse, and no breath ?

Perform CPR

2

Pulse and not breathing ?

Perform rescue breath
-breathing for the victim

3

Clinical Death

when breathing and circulation stops
-It may be reversible if CPR is initiated immediately

4

Biological Death

When the brain cells die due to lack of oxygen
-takes place 4-6min. after breathing and circulation stop

5

AED

Automated external defibulator

6

Two ways to open the airway

Jaw thrust and head tilt chin lift

7

Two ways to clear an airway obstruction

-abdominal thrust (conscious)
-chest compressions (unconscious)
-chest thrust (for obese or pregnant people)

*if and only if you can see the object you may do a finger sweep

8

Rescue Breath

Pulse but not breathing
-Adult: 1 breath every 5-6 sec
-Child: 1 breath every 3-5 sce
*check pulse every 2 min.

9

Two techniques to control bleeding

direct pressure and the tourniquet

10

4 Classification Categories

Deceased

Immediate (priority)
-over 30 breaths/min, pulse more than 2 seconds and unable to follow commands

Delayed (2nd in line)

Minor (3rd)

*classification based on breathing, circulation, and mental status

11

Abrasion

Scraping away of outer skin

12

Incision

Smooth straight cut
Ex. Paper or razor cut

13

Laceration

Jagged edge wound
Ex. Broken glass, metal

14

Puncture

Deep wound through the skin and tissue
Ex. Knives, arrows, bullets

15

Avulsion

Part of the body forcibly torn away
Ex. Tip of nose, ear etc

16

Amputation

Surgical or traumatic removal of a body part

17

Treating for shock

Control Bleeding
Maintain body Temp.
Position to maintain blood flow
Reassure victim
Monitor

18

Experienced Stroke

You elevate the head and shoulders

19

Fracture of any lower limbs

Do not elevate legs

20

Joints

Place where bones fit together
-critical in order for body to move

21

Skeletal muscle

Soft fibrous tissue
-controls all conscious or deliberate movement of bones and joints

22

Cartilage

Connective tissues that cover the end of the bones

23

Tendons

Nada of connective tissue that binds muscles to bones

24

Pathogens

Causes infections and diseases that are spread through the air or by contact with blood or body fluids

25

Bacteria

Microscopic organs that live in humans, animals, plants, water, soil etc.

* humans have bad and good bacteria, the bad bacteria is a pathogen

26

Virus

Submicroscopic agent capable of infecting living cells, once inside the cell it can reproduce & cause illnesses or diseases

27

Two primary ways pathogens are spread

Airborne and blood borne

28

Chain of commission for pathogens

Infectious agent (bacteria, virus) > reservoir > portal of exit> mode of transmission > portal of entry > another person

29

Moving victims

Should only be moved if
-the danger outweighs the risk of further injuring the victim
-rescuer is unable to asses

30

CPR

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
-artificially restoring and maintaining a victims breath and circulation

31

Treat for shock

-Control bleeding and other injuries
-be alert for vomiting
-maintain body temp.
-place victim in positing to maintain blood flow
-reassure and monitor victim

32

Head injury

Do not apply direct pressure
-prepare for vomit
-treat for shock
-do not elevate legs
*if impaired objects to the head are obstructing airway attempt to remove and place dressing on both sides

33

Types of chest and abdominal injuries

Blunt trauma
-blow to the chest that can cause fractured bones, damage to vital organs

-Penetrating objects (knives, bullets, glass)

-Compression (striking a steering wheel)
-blood loss
-fractured bones, ruptured lungs

34

Closed chest wounds

Flail chest: Occurs when the ribs and or sternum is fractured and a segment of the chest wall does not rise with the rest of the chest during respiration
*same as Paradoxical breathing
*place victim is recovery position on injured side

35

Open chest wounds

Apply an occlusive dressing which is a non porous dressing (plastic bag) used to cover a wound and create an airtight seal

36

Closed abdominal wounds

-You can suspect a closed wound if victim is in a fetal position
-rapid or shallow breathing
-tender abdomen to the touch
*treat for shock continue to monitor

37

Open abdominal wounds

Apply sterile dressing to control bleeding

38

Protruding Organs

Cover with moist sterile dressing and seal with an airtight bandage
*Do Not Attempt to replace or remove

39

First degree burns

Damage to the outer most layer of the skin which is the epidermis (mild sunburn)

40

Second degree burn

Damage done to the epidermis and the dermis which is the layer with hair follicles, nerves, and sweat glands.
-skin will be red and blistery

41

Third degree burns

Damage done to the epidermis, dermis, and the fatty layer, including the muscle under the skin
*most serious burn, skin may appear leathery
*over burning will lead to hypothermia

42

Most common type of burns

Thermal
-direct heat (fire, steam, hot object, fluid)
Chemical
-acid
Electrical
-electrocution, lightening
Radiation
-excessive exposure to radiation

43

Indicators of Cardia emergency

-chest pains
-radiating pains
-vital signs (difficulty breathing, abnormal pulse)
-mental status (anxiety, short temper)
-Other

44

Treating cardiac emergencies

-place victim in comfortable position
-keep victim calm and still

45

Indicators of seizures

-staring spells
-tick like movements
-lip smacking
-urination on self
-purposeless sounds and movements
-eyes rolling upward

46

Indicators of stroke

CVA (cerebrovascular accident)
Mental status( confusion, delirium)
Mobility
-paralysis on one side of body
-numb or weakness of a limb
-CONVULSIONS
Vision (unequal pupil size, sensitive to light)
Comm.(slurred speech)

47

Diabetic Emergencies (insulin shock)

Insulin Shock (most common)
-skin ( pale, moist, clammy)
-normal breathing
-mental status (hostile, fainting, seizure)
-rapid pulse

48

Diabetic Emergency (diabetic coma)

-skin ( red, warm)
-breathing (labored, sweet smell)
-mental status (restlessness, confusion)
-pulse (weak, rapid pulse)
-dry mouth, thirsty, vomit

49

Hypothermia

Occurs when the body's temperature drops to the point where the body systems are affected

50

Mild moderate hypothermia

-violent shivering
-numbness
-fatigue
-cold skin
-confusion

51

Severe hypothermia

-lack of shivering
-rigid muscles
-slow weak pulse
-blue grey skin

52

Frostnip

Freezing of skins outer layer

53

Frostbite

Freezing of skins tissue below skin surface
*do not rub or all refreezing after victim warms up

54

Heat cramps

When the body loses too much salt due to prolonged perspiration
-painful muscle spasms usually in the legs or abdomen

55

Heat exhaustion

-profuse sweating
-dizziness
-rapid pulse
-weakness
-nausea and vomiting

56

Heat stroke

Occurs when body temperature is abnormally high
-a life threatening condition
-red hot dry skin, possible seizure/unconsciousness

57

Transporting pregnant women

Can be transported if in first stage of labor if
-limb presentation
-breech presentation
-cord presentation
-Delayed delivery
-excessive bleeding

58

Do not transport

If woman is in second stage of labor
-contractions are les than 2 min apart
-woman feels urgent need to bear down
-crowing
-amniotic sac has ruptured (water broke)