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Flashcards in Learning and Information Processing Deck (8)
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What are the three categories of organizational knowledge? Describe each one.

Tacit Knowledge - The implicit knowledge used to perform work and make sense of the world, it is hard to verbalize because it is expressed through action based skills.

Explicit knowledge - Can be expressed formally using symbols or notation. Can be object or rule based.

Cultural knowledge - Cognitive and affective structures that are habitually used to perceive, explain and evaluate reality. Assumptions, Beliefs, Conventions and Expectations that are used to assign value and significance to new information


Describe the 4 main points of Choo's Data, Information and Knowledge diagram and how one leads to the next

Signals - physical structuring, sensing, selecting >> Data - cognitive structuring, meaning significance >>Information - belief structuring, beliefs and justification >>Knowledge


What are the three key ideas of learning?

-Two types of learning (implicit and explicit)
-Learning does not need to be complete
-Reinforcement plays a key role in understanding much learning


What is implicit learning?

Implicit learning seems to be automatic, based on practice, and isn't improved upon reflection. Produces knowledge which can not be verbalized


What is explicit learning?

Proceeds with full consciousness in a hypothesis tested way. Produces knowledge which can be verbalized.


What is a key difference between novices and experts?

Expert chunks are large and rich in semantic information,
Novice chunks are small and focussed on surface information.


What is reasoning?

Using prior knowledge to draw conclusions, to infer something new about the domain of interest


How does problem solving differ between experts and novices?

Expertise is based on specific content knowledge rather than domain-independent skills. Experts function intuitively rather than explicitly. Depending on the task, experts can be slower at coming to conclusions.