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Flashcards in Learning and Information Processing Deck (8)
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1

What are the three categories of organizational knowledge? Describe each one.

Tacit Knowledge - The implicit knowledge used to perform work and make sense of the world, it is hard to verbalize because it is expressed through action based skills.

Explicit knowledge - Can be expressed formally using symbols or notation. Can be object or rule based.

Cultural knowledge - Cognitive and affective structures that are habitually used to perceive, explain and evaluate reality. Assumptions, Beliefs, Conventions and Expectations that are used to assign value and significance to new information

2

Describe the 4 main points of Choo's Data, Information and Knowledge diagram and how one leads to the next

Signals - physical structuring, sensing, selecting >> Data - cognitive structuring, meaning significance >>Information - belief structuring, beliefs and justification >>Knowledge

3

What are the three key ideas of learning?

-Two types of learning (implicit and explicit)
-Learning does not need to be complete
-Reinforcement plays a key role in understanding much learning

4

What is implicit learning?

Implicit learning seems to be automatic, based on practice, and isn't improved upon reflection. Produces knowledge which can not be verbalized

5

What is explicit learning?

Proceeds with full consciousness in a hypothesis tested way. Produces knowledge which can be verbalized.

6

What is a key difference between novices and experts?

Expert chunks are large and rich in semantic information,
Novice chunks are small and focussed on surface information.

7

What is reasoning?

Using prior knowledge to draw conclusions, to infer something new about the domain of interest

8

How does problem solving differ between experts and novices?

Expertise is based on specific content knowledge rather than domain-independent skills. Experts function intuitively rather than explicitly. Depending on the task, experts can be slower at coming to conclusions.