LEC 1 - Hypothalamic + Pituitary Hormones Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology II > LEC 1 - Hypothalamic + Pituitary Hormones > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 1 - Hypothalamic + Pituitary Hormones Deck (70):
1

What seven hormones are released from the anterior pit.?

ACTH 

GH 
TSH 

PRL 
FSH 

LH 

MSH 

 

2

What hormones are secreted from the posterior pit.?

ADH 

Oxytocin

3

What is the structure that is responsible for stimulating the pituitary gland?

Hypothalamus

4

What does the hypothalamus integrate the activities of?

Endocrine + Nervous

5

What is the endocrine system regulated by?

Pituitary

6

What is the nervous system regulated by when it comes to the hypothalmus?

Kidney

7

What is the major difference between anterior and posterior pituitary stimulation?

Posterior is directly stimulated by the hypothalamus 

Anterior is stimulated by hormones released by the hypothlamus 

8

What two nuclei are responsible for stimulating the posterior pituitary?

Supraoptic 

-- and --

Paraventricular 

9

What artery carries the hormones that stimulate the anterior pituitary?

Superior hypophyseal artery 

10

-physis: Pituitary gland 

Hypophysis 

11

-physis: Anterior pituitary

Adenohypophysis 

12

-physis: Posterior pituitary

Neurohypophysis 

13

What is the adenohypophysis derived from?

Oral mucosa

14

What is the neurohypophysis derived from?

Nerual ectoderm 

15

What are the two types of regulatory loops when it comes to regulation of hormones?

Long 

and 

Short 

16

What makes something a short regulatory loop?

Hormone secreted by the pituitary (or goal hormone) is what negative regulates the hypothalamus 

17

What makes something a long regulatory loop?

A downstream by product of the hormone released is what negatively regulates the hypothalamus

18

Term: Peptide hormones (Types?)

Chains of AA 

Glycoproteins 

Short polypeptides/small proteins

19

What are important glycoproteins?

TSH + LH + FSH 

20

What are important short polypeptides?

ADH 

Oxytocin 

GH 

Prolactin 

Insulin 

Glucagon 

PTH 

21

What are the ways that the peptide hormones work to induce changes in cells?

effect cAMP levels 

effect Ca2+ levels

22

How are cAMP levels affected by peptide hormones?

Stimulate G protein 

cAMP is stimulated/inhibited

Affect Kinase levels 

Ion channels/Enzymes

23

What hormones of importants effect cAMP levels?

ADH 

FSH 

LH 

TSH 

24

How do hormones effect the cell in a way that calicum levels change?

Activate G protein receptor 

PLC > DAG > PKC 

Open calcium channel 

Calmodulin activated 

25

What hormone works by changing the calcium levels in the cell?

Oxytocin 

26

What are the characteristics of hormones that work through surface receptors?

Fast acting 

Pathways are already present, just increasing or decreasing activity 

27

Term: Lipid dermivatives (Types?) 

Carbon rings and side chains 

Built from FA's or cholesterol 

Eicosanoids + Steroid 

28

What are the important eicosanoids?

Prostaglandins 

29

What are eicosanoids derivatives of?

Arachodonic acid 

30

What are steroids derivatives of?

Cholesterol 

31

What are the important steroid hormones?

Androgens 

Estrogens 

Progestins 

32

How do lipid hormones activate changes in the cell?

Diffusion through the membrane 

Bind to cytoplasmic receptors 

Go to nucleus and cause transcription of new protein 

33

What are the characteristics of steroid hormones?

Induce signals slowly, because creating new signaling pathways 

Since different cells have different concentrations of receptors some will take longer to react then others 

34

Term: AA derivatives (Types?) 

Small molecules structurally related to individual AA's 

Tyrosine + Tryptophan 

35

What is thyroid hormone made form?

Tyrosine 

36

What are the signs a dog has diabetes insipidus?

Diluted urine 

Normal glucose + creatine levels in urine 

Increased hematocrit 

PU/PD

37

What are the two froms of DI? Whats wrong in each case?

Central - No ADH 

Nephrogenic - Kidneys not responding to ADH 

38

How does ADH regulate water excretion?

Induces aquaporin 2 in the collecting duct

39

What is the mechanism by which aquaporin is inserted into the collecting duct?

ADH stimulates G protien 

Increase cAMP 

PKA stimulated 

Vesciles taken to membrane 

**Aquaporin-3 always expressed 

40

What type of hormone is vasopressin?

Peptide

41

What are the types of vasopressin?

AVP 

LVP (pigs) 

DDAVP (drug form)

42

Characteristics of LVP

From pigs 

so shorter duration and smaller response in cats, dogs, and horses 

 

43

Characteristics of DDAVP

Modified structure to increase response and duration 

L-ARG changed to D-ARG 

Extra tail of AA added

44

What is the purpose of desmopressin?

Endogenous vasopressing replacement

45

In what form is DDAVP given?

Nasal spray 

Not well tollerated in this method by animals 

So given in conjunctiva - varies between animal 

Dose to effect 

46

When is the injectable form of DDAVP given?

when conjunctival isn't tolerated 

47

Why can oral tablets be given for DDAVP?

Hydrolysis of peptide, doesnt work well 

48

What is the peak effect time in dogs for DDAVP? What is the duration of action?

peak = 2 to 6 hours 

Duration = 10 to 27 hours 

49

What is the major side effect of DDAVP?

Increase Factor VIII + vWF 

Cause a hypercoagulable state = thormbotic events 

50

What causes acromegaly?

Increased endogenous GH secretion secondary to an active pituitary adenoma 

51

What are the signs of acromegaly?

Systolic cardiac murmur 

Hepatomegaly/Renomegaly 

PU/PD 

Polyphagia w/ weight gain 

Diabetic but unresponsive to insulin 

52

Why is there a diabetogenic effect of GH?

GH stimulates liver to break down glcogen into glucose 

Fuesl growth effects

53

How does GH have glucose sparing effect?

Stimulates adipose cells to break down stored fat 

Fueling growth effects 

54

What are the two methods to inhibit GH secretion?

Decrease levels of GH-RH 

Increase levels of GH-IH 

55

What is released by the liver that causes the growth effects that is stimulated by GH?

IGF-1 

56

Why can't we increase IGF-1 levels to inhibit GH expression?

Would promote hypoglycemia 

57

What is the drug used to treat acromegaly?

Octreotide

58

What is octreotide? Type and mechanism

Synthetic, 8aa 

Exogenously increases the amount of GH-IH 

results in decrease in amount of circulating GH 

59

How so octreotide aborbed and processed?

SC admin 

Rapidly absorbed 

Need to adjust if patient has renal disease 

 

60

What is the drug used to increase milk production in cattle?

Somatotropin

61

What are the other uses for somatotropin other than milk production?

Increase growth rate + improved meat quality in pigs 

Increased lean to fat ratio in beef cattle 

Pituitary dwarfism in dogs 

62

What type of hormone is somatropin?

peptide 

63

How does somatotropin effect metabolic function?

Increased fat utilization by organs 

Increased glycogen hydrolysis 

Increased glucose avalible for milk 

64

What does somatropin do in regards to mammary glands? How?

GH > Liver > IGF -1 

Increases blood flow (via increased CO) 

Increased nutrient extraction 

65

What is the reason for variability in output with milk in cows treated with somatotropin?

Primiparous cows < multiparous cows 

Ambient temps 

Feed 

66

What is the reaons for a cow to have ketogensis?

Increase engergy demands for lactation not met by diet 

Increase utilization of NEFA + conversion to BHB

Enter starvation state reduces production 

67

How can GH reduce ketosis?

Direct effect of decreasign BCS through increased lipolysis/glucose-sparing 

Indirect through better feed management 

68

How is somatotropin given?

every 14 days

depot preparation 

 

69

What is the withdrawl time for somatotropin?

0 day 

70

What are the adverse effects of somatotropin?

Mastitis + Laminitis 

DM + Acromegaly in Dogs 

Increased rate of twinning