LEC 11-13 - Behavioral Drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology II > LEC 11-13 - Behavioral Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 11-13 - Behavioral Drugs Deck (208):
1

TCA's (4)

Amitriptyline 

Clomipramine 

Doxepin 

Imipramine 

2

SSRI's (5)

Fluoxetine 

Proxetine 

Sertraline

Citalopram

Fluvoxamine

3

CNS Stimulatents (2)

Amphetamine 

Methyphenidate

4

Phenothiazines (2)

Acepromazine 

Chlorpromazine

5

Other Behavioral Drugs (4)

Trazodone 

Mirtazepine

Buspirone

Selegiline 

6

Anticonvulsants (10)

Phenobarbital 

Pentobarbital 

Potassium bromide 

Diazepam

Leviracetam

Zonisamide

Felbamate 

Gabapentin 

Valroic Acid 

Phenytonin

7

Alpha2's (7)

Xylazine

Detomidine

Medetomidine

Dexmedetomidine

Romifidine

Clonidine

Atipamezole

8

Benzo's (6)

Diazepam 

Alprazolam

Midazolam

Lorazepam

Oxazepam

Flumazenil

9

Dogs - Aggression (2)

TCA's 

SSRI's 

10

Dogs - General anxeity disorders (4)

TCA 

SSRI

 Buspirone

Trazodone

11

Dogs - Acral Lick dermatitis (2) 

TCA 

SSRI

12

Dogs - Cognitive dysfunction

Selegiline

13

Cats - Intersitital cystitis (1)

Amitriptyline

14

Cats - Urine marking (3)

TCA 

SSRI

Buspirone

15

Cats - Intercat aggression

Buspirone

16

Cats - Compulsive behavior

SSRI 

TCA

17

Cats - Appetite stimulant 

Mirtazepine

18

Parrots - Feather picking 

TCA 

19

TCA - Adverse Effects 

Dry mouth/eyes

Urinary retention 

Sedation 

Mydriasis

20

Benzodiazepine - Dogs use (5) 

Submissive uriniation 

Urine marking 

Storm phobia 

Seperation anxiety 

Fear WITHOUT aggression 

21

Benzodiazepines - Cat uses (3)

Increase appetite 

Urine marking 

Strom phobie

22

Benzodiazepines - Mare uses (1)

Foal rejection

23

Benzodiazepines - Bird uses (1)

Feather picking 

24

Benzodiazepines - OD reversal

Flumazneil

25

Alpha2 Agonists - Dogs

Anxiolytic 

*Clonidine as adjunct 

26

Alpha2 Agonists - Cats 

Induce vomiting 

*Xylazine

27

Alpha2 Agonists - Horse 

Sedation 

***Penile prolapse can occur 

28

Alpha2 Agonists -  Sheep 

TOXIC!!! 

29

Alpha2 Agonists - Reversal

Alpha2 antagnonists = 

Atipamezole 

30

Alpha2 Agonists - Adverse effects

Ataxia 

VOmiting 

Sedation 

Hyperglycemia

31

Anticonvulsants - Dogs (6)

Phenobarbital 

Potassium bromide 

Leviracetam 

Zonisaminde 

Felbamate 

Gabapentin

32

Anticonvulsants - Cats (3)

Phenobarbital 

Leviracetam

Zonisamide 

33

Status epilepticus = 

continous seizures of more than 5 minutes 

34

Treatment protocol for status epilepticus

IV Benzo's 

Propofol 

Barbiturates 

Leviracetam

Phenytoin 

Inhalation anesthetics 

35

Dopamine is synthesized from

Tyrosine

36

Dopamine metabolized by: 

Monoamine oxidase (MAO)

37

Dopamine is taken out of terminal by --

DAT

38

# of dopamine receptors in the brain 

5

39

Blocking what dopamine receptor and where causes motor deficits?

D2 

Striatum 

40

Reward pathway = 

VTA-nucleus accumbens 

41

Function of the median eminence pathway - 

INhibits prolactin release

42

NE synthesized from - 

Tyrosine 

43

What terminates the action of NE at the synaptic cleft?

NET 

44

What metabolizes NE?

MAO via hydrolysis 

45

Where do NE pathways originate?

Locus coeruleus 

 

46

Alpha2 receptor stiumlation leads to...

Decreased pain transmission 

Sedation 

Muscle relaxation 

47

What three cognitive functions need NE?

Attention 

Memory 

Mood 

48

What do antidepressants duein regards to NE?

Decrease re-uptake 

49

5-HT is synthesized from...

Tryptophan 

50

What takes 5-HT out of the terminal, ending its stimulation?

SERT

51

What metabolizes 5-HT?

MAO

52

Where do the 5-HT neurons originate?

Raphe nucleus 

53

What two cognitive functions are 5-HT related to?

Appetite 

Mood 

54

What do most anti-depressants do in regards to 5-HT?

Inhibit reuptake 

55

TCA's - Mechanism

Inhibit re-uptake of 5-HT + NE 

Blocks M + Histamine receptors = sedation 

56

TCA's - Onset time

2 to 4 weeks

57

TCA's - Effects

Anxiolytic 

Anti-compulsive 

Anti-aggressive 

58

TCA's - Treatment length 

Chronic

59

TCA's - Protocol for stopping treatment

Withdraw slowly, unless putting on another anti-depressant 

60

Amitriptyline - Mechanism

Inhibits reuptake of 5-HT + NE 

*NE makes it useful for pain 

M/Histamine receptor blockade 

61

Amitriptyline - metabolism 

to nortrityline 

62

Amitriptyline - Adverse effects

Sedation 

Mydriasis 

Urinary retention 

Weight gain 

do NOT give to pregnant/lactating animals

63

Amitriptyline - Toxicity

Depression 

Ataxia 

Convulsions 

Collapse

64

Amitriptyline -  Use

Cats = 

Pain 

Compulsive behaviors (psychogenic alopecia) 

urine marking 

Dogs = 

Comulsive disorders 

Seperation anxeity 

Agression 

65

Amitriptyline - Mechanism for idiopathic interstiital cystitis

Decreased pain + bladder spasms 

66

Clomipramine - Mechanism

5-HT > NE 

Blocks muscarinic 

67

Clomipramine - Adverse effects

Decrease thyroid hormones 

Mydriasis 

Regurgitation 

Appetite change 

urinary retention 

Aviod in lactating animals

68

Clomipramine - Use in Dogs

Compulsive disorders (lick dermatitis)

Tail chasing

Separation anxeity (FDA) 

 

69

Clomipramine - Use in Birds

Feather picking 

70

Doxepin - Mechanism

NE > 5-HT

71

Doxepin - Regulation

Banned in racing horses 

72

Doxepin - Use in birds

Destructive behvaior 

73

Doxepin - Use in Small Animals

psychogenic dermatits

74

What should NOT be mixed with TCA's?

Other TCA's 

MAO inhibitors 

St Johns Wart 

 

75

What happens when you mix TCA with other drugs you aren't supposed to?

Serotonin syndrome 

76

What does TCA overdose lead to?

Cardiac arrhythmias 

77

Imipramine - Use in Dogs

Decrease inapproriate urination 

Decreased withdrawn behavior in beagles 

78

Imipramine - Horses 

Ejaculatory dysfunction 

79

SSRI - Mechanism

Inhibit reuptake of 5-HT 

80

SSRI - Time for Effect Onset

3 to 4 weeks

81

SSRI - Overall function

Decrease response to stress 

Increase Neural plasticity 

Anxiolytic 

Anti-compulsive 

Anti-agression 

82

SSRI - Use for

Generalized anxeity disorders (chronic state of fear) 

Agression 

Compulsive disorders 

 

83

SSRI - Main side effect 

Anorexia 

84

Fluoxetine - 1/2 life + Dose

1/2 = ~ 1 week 

SID 

85

Fluoxetine - Inhibitory effects

Inhibits CYP450 - drug interactions 

 

86

Inhibition of CYP2D6 + 2C19 leads to...

Decreased metabolism of TCA 

87

Fluoxetine - Use in Dogs

Acral lick dermatits

Agression 

Compulsive disorders 

88

Fluoxetine -  Use in Cats

Psychogenic alopecia 

 

89

Fluoxetine - Adverse effects

Panting + Anxeity + Increased aggression = dogs 

Sleep pattern changes + anxiety = cats

90

Citalopram - Use in Dogs

Acral lick dermatitis 

91

Sertraline - Use in Cats

Obessive disorders

92

Sertraline - Use in Dogs 

Acral lick dermatitis 

93

Paroxetine - Use in cats 

Urine marking 

Agression 

94

Paroxetine - Use in Dogs

Anexity disorders

95

Paroxetine - Effect on CYP450

INhibits 

96

Fluvoxamine - Use in Dogs/Cats

Aggression 

(Especially maternal aggression) 

97

What three things must be reported immediately if seen after starting SSRI?

Vomiting 

Diarrhea 

Seizures

98

Trazodone - Mechanism

Weak 5-HT inhibitor of reuptake 

Blocks 5-HT2a receptors 

Block alpha1 

99

Trazodone - Adverse effects

Vomiting 

Diarrhea 

Panting 

Ataxia 

100

Trazodone - Use in Dogs 

Add on to fluxetine for agression + anxiety

Mild thunderstorm anxeity 

101

Mirtazepine - Mechanism 

Alpha2 antagonist 

Increase release of NE/5-HT 

Antihistamine 

102

Mirtazepine - Effects

Appetite stimulant 

Decrease nasuea + vomitng 

103

Mirtazepine - 1/2 life + Dosing

Cats - give every 3 day s

Dogs - SID

104

Buspirone - Mechanism

Parital agonist of 5-HT1A receptor 

Some inhbition of NE/DA reuptake 

105

Buspirone - Upside to use

Non-sedating 

Few side effects 

No withdrawal or dependecen 

106

Buspirone - Use in Cats

Decrease urine marking 

Inter-cat aggression 

107

Buspirone - Use in Dogs

General anxiety disorders 

Combine w/ fluxetine = aggression + anxiety + stereotypic behavior

108

Selegeline - Mechanism

Inhibits MAOb 

Increasing levels of dopamine

109

Selegeline - Use in Dogs

FDA approved 

Canine cognitive dysfunction 

110

Selegeline - Time until onset of effect

1 month

111

Selegeline - DOC for...

Pituitary dependent Cushing's disease

112

Symptoms of Canine Cognitive Dysfunction

Memory loss 

Confusion 

Loss of house training 

Decreased social interaction

113

What is thought to be the cause of Canine Cognitive dysfunction?

Loss of dopaminergic neurons 

114

Phenothiazines - Mechanism

Block D2 receptors 

Block M + Histamine + Alpha 1 receptors 

115

What is the problem with Phenothiazines blocking D2 receptors?

Can lead to tremors + rigiidity due to inhibition of striatal dopamine transmission 

116

Acepromazine/Prmoazine - Effects

Sedating 

 

117

Acepromazine/Prmoazine - Adverse effects 

Penile prolapse in horses 

Hypotension 

Agression 

Agitation 

Ataxia 

118

Chlorpromazine - Use in dogs/cats

Antiemetic or pre-med 

119

CNS Stimulants - Treatment of OD

Remove stomach contents via gastric lavage 

Activated charcoal if within 2 hours of ingestion 

120

CNS Stimulants - Adverse effects

Anorexia 

Agitation 

Tachycardia 

Increased BP 

Seizures

121

CNS Stimulants - Use in dogs

Canine Hyperkinesis

122

CNS Stimulants - Mechanism

Taken into nerve terminal 

Reverses dopamine transporter 

Increased DA levels

123

What is the major function of GABA?

Major inhibitory NT in brain 

124

GABA is synthesized from ....

Glutamate

125

What is responsible for synthesizing GABA?

GAD 

126

What occurs with the stimulation of GABAa receptors?

Cl- Channels open 

Hyperpolarize neuron 

Inhibit neurotransmission 

127

What are the effects of GABA activity?

Decreased anxiety 

Vigilance 

Muscle tension 

Seizure activity 

Sedation occurs

128

What does a GABAa receptor make up?

Ion channel 

 

129

What ion does GABAa receptor shuttle?

Chloride

130

What are the 5 substances that bind to GABA receptor?

Benzodiazepines 

Propofol 

GABA 

Isoflurane 

Ethanol 

131

What do benzodiazepines specifically do to the GABA channel?

Increase the frequenccy of channel opening 

 

132

What are the three benzodiazepines?

Diazepam 

Midazolam 

Alprazolam 

133

What are the two main uses of benzodiazepines?

Axiolytic 

Sedative 

134

Benzodiazepines - Onset of action

Rapid onset 

135

Benzodiazepines - Metabolism

Liver 

136

Benzodiazepines - Excretion

Liver

137

Benzodiazepines - Uses in Cats

Appetite stimulant 

Urine marking 

Storm phobia 

 

138

Benzodiazepines - Use in dogs 

Submissive urination 

Urine marking 

Storm phobia 

Seperation anxeity 

Fear of people with agresssion 

 

139

Benzodiazepines - Use in Birds

Feather picking

140

Benzodiazepines - Use in Mares

Foal rejection

141

Diazepam - 1/2 life 

Horse 

Dog 

Cats

Horse = 7 to 22 hours

Cat = 5.5 hours 

Dogs = 2 to 3 hours 

142

Diazepam - Adverse effects

May decrease inhibtion 

Increase aggression 

Ataxia (horses) 

Crosses teh placenta - teratogenic 

 

143

Alprazolam - Dosing schedule 

Dogs = 4 hours 

Cats = 8 hours 

144

Midazolam - Use

Induction anesthesia 

Combination with medatomidine 

 

145

Midazolam - Admin 

Injection or Intranasal 

146

Lorazepam/Oxazepam - Metabolite  

It is a metabolite of diazepam 

147

Lorazepam/Oxazepam - use 

Appetite stimulant in cats

148

Benzodiazepines - Side effects

Sedation 

Ataxia 

Muscle relaxation 

Increased appetite 

Aggression 

149

Benzo - Overdose treatment 

Supportive 

Activated charcoal 

Induce vomiting in cats with xylazine 

Flumazenil to reverse 

150

What can diazepam do to cats? 

Idiopathic necrosis in cats 

151

Flumazenil - Mechanism

Antagonist at benzodiazepine receptors 

152

Flumazenil - Use

reverse effects of benzo's when needed

153

Flumazenil - Contraindications?

Admin to seizure prone patient can cause seizures 

Also if there is TCA or barbituate OD 

154

What are the alpha2 agnoists?

Xylazine 

Detomidine 

Medetomidine 

Dexmedetomine 

Romifidine 

Clonidine 

155

Alpha2 Agonist - Mech

Stimulate pre-synaptic receptors to decrease release of NE 

156

Alpha2 receptor location in the body 

CNS + Periphery 

157

What is the end result of alpha2 agonists?

Analgesia 

Sedation

158

What is the mechanism behind alpha2 agonist's sedation + relief of anxeity?

Decreased activity of ascending neural projections to cerbral cortex + limbic system 

159

How does alpha2 agnoist inhibit pain?

Dorsal horn 

Increase spinal NE in pathways going down spinal cord 

 

160

How does alpha2 receptors affect the ascending pain pathway?

Decrease the release of glutamate + substance  in dorsal horn 

161

Which of the alpha2 agnoist cause hypotension + bradycardia?

Clonidine 

Medetomidine 

Dexmeditomidine 

162

What alpha2 is responisble for toxicity in sheep?

Alpha2d 

163

What is alpha2a receptor involved in?

Sedation 

Anxiolysis 

Analgesia 

164

What are the peripheral affects of alpha2 agonists?

Decreased BP + Brady cardia due to decreased CO 

Vasocontriction then Dilation 

Hypoxemia 

Diuresis 

Decreased GI motility 

Vomiting

Hyperglycemia 

165

What alpha receptors are responsible for the vasocontriction and dilation effects of the agnoists?

2b = Constrict 

2A = Dilation 

166

When is hypoxemia experienced most with alpha2 agnoist use?

use in sheep

167

Why do you see hyperglycemia with alpha2 agonist use?

Decrease in insulin release 

** most with xylazine

168

What drug causes the most pronounced vomiting? In who?

Cats 

Xylazine 

169

Alpha2 Agnoist - Drug for Anxiolytic + use

Clonidine 

Add on drug for anxeity in dogs 

 

170

Alpha2 Agnoist - Muscle relaxation drug 

Romifidine 

171

Alpha2 Agnoist - Drugs that cause the least sedation

Romididine 

Detomidine 

172

Alpha2 Agnoist - Drugs that cause the most sedation 

Dexmedetomidine 

Xylazine 

173

Alpha2 Agnoist - Animals most sensitive to alpha2 sedation

Bovine > Ruminants > Dogs > Cats > Horses > Pigs 

174

Xylazine - Mechanism

Less selective for Alpha 1 vs 2 

 

175

Xylazine - Alpha1 stimulation

Aggression more likely 

176

Xylazine -  Potency 

Least potent of alpha2s

177

Xylazine - Contriindication 

Can be fatal to swine

178

Xylazine - Metabolism

CYP450 

179

Xylazine - FDA approval

Cats

Dog 

Horse 

Wildlife 

180

Xylazine - Adverese reactions

Bloat due to dereased Gi movement 

181

Detomidine - FDA approval

Horse Only 

182

Detomidine - Potency 

More alpha2 selective 

183

Detomidine - Adverese effects

Ataxia 

Penile prolapse 

Fatal dsrhythmias when given with sulfamides 

184

Detomidine - Use

Standing procedures in horses 

Combined with xylazine

185

Medetomidine - Use 

Produce sedation in surgery 

186

Medetomidine - Effect

Sedation 

Analgesia 

Anxiolytic 

187

Medetomidine - FDA apporval 

Dogs

188

Medetomidine - Use

CRI in ICU

189

Dexmedetomidine - FDA approval 

Dogs/Cats

190

Dexmedetomidine - Potency 

Most potent alpha2 selection

191

Dexmedetomidine - Use

Light anesthesia for short procedures 

Pre-meds 

192

Dexmedetomidine - Metabolism 

CYP450 

** also inhibts = drug interactions

193

Dexmedetomidine - Adverse effects

Ataxia 

Vomiting 

Hyperglycemia 

 

194

Dexmedetomidine - Reversal agent 

Atipamezole 

195

Romifidine - FDA approval

Horse via IV

196

Romifidine - Adverse affects

Less ataxia 

Longer duration 

CV depression in dog/cat 

 

197

Clonidine - Use

add on for anxiety in dogs 

Anesthesia - increases action duration of lidocaine in epidural 

198

Atipamezole - Mechanism

Highly selective alpha2 antagonist

199

Atipamezole - Adverse effects

Delirium 

Anxeity 

Aggression 

Cardiovascular collapse 

 

200

Atipamezole - Cause of CV collapse

Histamine release 

or periphervasocontriction + bradycardia 

Hight vagal tone

201

Atipamezole - Food Animals 

NOT SUED! 

202

What are the anticonvulsants? (8) 

Phenobarbital 

Potassium bromide 

Diazepam 

Leviracetam 

Felbamate 

Zonisamide 

Gabapentin 

Valproic acid 

203

Describe partial seziures 

One area of the brain invovled 

204

Describe psycomotor seizures 

Period of odd behevaior 

205

What is occurring in a neuron during seizure?

Disordered, synchornous, rhythmic firing 

206

Where do seizures tend to be located?

Cerebral cortex 

207

What is the goal of seizure therapy?

Decrease abnormal or synchornized firing 

208

What may seizures be caused by?

Glutamate activity too much 

Decrease in gaba activity