LEC 25 - Macrocyclic Lactones Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology II > LEC 25 - Macrocyclic Lactones > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 25 - Macrocyclic Lactones Deck (73):
1

What do macrocylic lactones work against?

Nematodes and ectoparasites

2

What are macrocyclic lactones made from?

Streptomyces spp.

3

What are the two major groups of macrocyclic lactones?

Avermectins and milbemycins

4

What avermectins are used in food animal?

Ivermectin, eprinomectin, and doramectin

5

What avermectins are used in small animals?

Selamectin and ivermectin

6

What avermectins are used in horses?

ivermectin

7

What mibemycins are used in food animal?

Moxidectin

8

What mibemycins are used in small animals?

Moxidectin and milbemycin oxime

9

What mibemycins are used in horses?

Moxidectin

10

How do macrocyclic lactones work?

Activate two ligand-gated, chloride channels. Glutamate-activated, chloride channel. GABA receptor.

11

What happens when macrocyclic lactones activate glutamate-activated chloride channels?

Hyperpolarizing. Flaccid paralysis of somatic musculature and pharyngeal pump. Inhibition of reproductive tract in female nematodes.

12

Is the action of macrocyclic lactones reversible or non-reversible at the chloride channels?

non-reverisble

13

Where are GABA receptors found in nematodes?

Ventral nerve cord and head

14

What is the difference about ML's effects on gaba receptors compared to chloride receptors?

Need high concentrations of the drug to effect GABA receptors therefore probably the reason for ML's adverse effects.

15

How are ML's adminstered?

SC, IM, PO, and topical(w/ secondary oral)

16

What is the absorption like in ruminants for ML's?

Highly lipophilic drugs are poorly absorbed in ruminant GI tract.

17

How long do formulations of ML's last?

135days

18

Where do ML's distribute to?

Adipose tissue, serves as depot for the drug. Slows elimination as well. Will also go extensively to the lung and skin. Can get past the BBB.

19

How are ML's metabolized?

Oxidation in the liver.

20

How are ML's eliminated?

95% fecal and 5% urine (as parent compound)

21

What is the process of enterohepatic recycling that occurs with ML's?

20% of metabolites, parent compounds. Leads to prolonged effects of the drug

22

Where are avermectins eliminated from?

Milk, therefore use is restricted in non-lactating animals. The exceptions to this are eprinomectin and moxidectin.

23

What is P-gp?

ATP-dependent, broad specificity efflux pump

24

What another names does p-gp go by?

MDR1, ABCB1, or CD243

25

Where is p-gp expressed in the mammalian body?

Brain capillary endothelium, SI epithelium, biliary canalicular cells, renal proximal tubular cells, and placenta/testes

26

What three places of p-gp expression are important to ML's excretion?

Brain, Small intestine, and biliary system

27

What mutation occurs in collies? What is it's effects?

4bp, inactivating deletion. Homozygotes have a non-functional P-gp. Ivermectin levels in brain increase dramatically. Then lead to activation of GABA receptors.

28

What are the ten breeds of dogs that are most likely to have the MDR1 mutation?

Collie, longhaired whippet, shetland sheepdog, miniature australian shepherd, silken windhound, McNab, Australian shepherd, Waller, White swiss shepherd, and old english sheepdog.

29

What are the signs of toxic effects of ML's?

Vomiting, tremors, ataxia, mydriasis, blindness, and seizures

30

When do OD signs from ML's appear in cats?

10 hours from time of ingestion. But safe at 30x's the normal cat dose. For kittens it is 4x's the cat dose.

31

How much ML does it take to see signs of toxicity in horses?

9 to 10x's the dose

32

How much ML does it take to see signs of toxicity in cattle?

~12 x's the dose

33

How much ML does it take to see signs of toxicity in adult pigs?

100 x's the dose

34

When do you see hypersensitivity with ML adminstration?

With large worm burden

35

How much ML does it take to see signs of toxicity in a wildtype dog?

160x's the dose, death will occur at 6,000 x's the dose

36

How much ML does it take to see signs of toxicity in a ABCB1 mutant dog? How long does it take to see?

37

What is a safe alternative with ML's in collies?

Milbemycin oxime, because it does not cross the BBB. Selamectin would also work because it has a much higher toxic dose.

38

What drug acts with ML's to increase BBB permeability?

Spinosad

39

What is ivermectin used for in dogs?

Dirofilaria (heartworm), sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes, Demodicosis, Cheyletiella, Pneumonyssus (nasal mites)

40

What is selamectin used for in dogs?

Heartworm, Fleas, Otodectes, Sarcoptes scabiei, Dermacentor variablilis

41

What is milbemycin oxime used for in dogs?

Dirofilaria immits, GI roundworms, Hookworms, and whipworms

42

What is moxidectin used for in dogs?

Heartworm and hookworms

43

What three ML's are used in cats?

Ivermectin, selamectin, and milbemycin oxime

44

What is ivermectin used for in cats?

heartworm

45

What is selamectin used for in cats?

heartworm, fleas, otodectes, T. cati, and A. tubaeformae

46

What is milbemycin oxime used for in cats?

Heartworm, GI roundworms, and hookworms

47

What is the lifecycle of a heartworm?

Mosquito ingests microfilariae. Goes from L1 to L3 in mosquito in about 2 weeks. Mosquito bites host and infects. L3 for 3 to 4 days. L4 for 45 to 65 days. L3 adn L4 are spent in the tissue. Then becomes a developing adult for 4 to 5 months. Then finally a mature adult producing microfilariae. Both of which are in the blood stream phase.

48

How long do heartworm live in dogs?

Adults, 5 to 7 years. Microfilariae 1 to 2 years.

49

How long do heartworm live in cats?

Adults, 2 to 4 years. MIcrofilariae rarely circulate.

50

Class 1 Heartworm Infection -

Asymptomatic, (+) antigen test

51

Class 2 Heartworm Infection -

Moderate Pulmonary Damage with coughing and excercise intolerance.

52

Class 3 Heartworm Infection -

Right CHF, syncope, anemia, cachexia, and cor pulmonale

53

Class 4 Heartworm Infection -

Class 3 along with shock, DIC, jugular distention, and mitral regurgitation

54

What is Wolbachia?

Obligate, intracellular, gram (-), bacteria/rickettsia

55

What is Wolbachia associated with?

Survival/production/infectivity of filaria along with pulmonary and renal inflammation due to WSP surface proteins

56

What drug can kill Wolbachia?

Doxycycline

57

What is the recommendation protocol for heartworm treatment in regards to Wolbachia?

Treat with doxycycline for 30 days prior to melarsomine. Reduces worm burden prior to adulticide.

58

What is done if for whatever reason there is a contrindication for melarsomine use?

Use doxycylcine alone as sole adulticide in dogs

59

What does it mean when you get a (+) heartworm test?

30+ adult female worms

60

What is the DOC for heartworm treatment?

Melarsomine

61

How is melarsomine adminstered?

IM

62

What do you have to worry about when giving melarsomine?

Pulmonary thromboembolic events and hypersensitivity reactions

63

What is melarsomine contraindicated in?

Dogs with Caval Syndrome

64

Where does ivermectin work in the heartworm lifecycle?

L3/4, while the larvae is in the tissue phase

65

What two ML's are used in pigs?

Ivermectin and doramectin

66

What is ivermectin used for in pigs?

GI roundworms, lungworms, lice, and sarcoptic mange

67

What is doramectin used for in pigs?

as indicated

68

What two ML's can be used in horses?

Ivermectin and moxidectin

69

What is ivermectin used for in horses?

Gastrophilus intestinalis

70

What is moxidectin used for in horses?

Cyanthostomum sp.

71

Where do you see invermectin resistance?

Haemochus in sheeps and goats. Trichostrongylus in cattle.

72

What drug is being looked into as an additive to ML's to combat resistnace? Why?

Verapamil, reverses P-gp

73

What is thought to be the mechanism behind resistance to ML's ?

Increased expression of P-gp