LEC 26 - Anti-Proazoals Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology II > LEC 26 - Anti-Proazoals > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 26 - Anti-Proazoals Deck (133):
1

Which of the protozoas is reportable?

Leishmaniasis and babesiosis

2

What are the 8 protozoas that we are concerned with?

Giardia, trichomoniasis, babeiosis, leishmaniasis, EPM, Heptaozoonosis, toxoplasmosis, coccidiosis

3

What drugs can be used for giardia?

Benzimidozoles and nitroimidazoles

4

What drugs can be used for trichomoniasis?

Nitroimadazoles

5

What drugs can be used for babesiosis?

Diamidine derivatives, tetracyclines, azithromycin, and hydroxyquinolones

6

What drugs can be used for leishmaniasis?

Antimonial compounds

7

What drugs can be used for EPM?

Triazine derivatives and DHFR

8

What drugs can be used for hepatozoonosis?

Diamidine derivatives, Hydroxyquinolones, DHFR, and clindamycin

9

What drugs can be used for toxoplasmosis?

DHFR and Clindamycin

10

What drugs can be used for coccidiosis?

Hydroxyquinolones, DHFR, Halofugione, Amprolium, Sulfoamides, ionophores, and robenidine

11

What are the characteristics of giardia?

Infection from contaminated food/water. Two life stages that interfere with absorption in the lumen of the small intestine.

12

What are the animals infected by giardia?

Dogs, Cats, Horses, and Cattle

13

What animals are benzimidazoles used to treat giardia?

Dogs, cats, and cattle

14

What animals are bitroimidazoles used to treat giardia?

Dogs, cats, and horses

15

How do benziimidazoles works?

Inihibit microtubule formation. Kills trophozoites.

16

What are the three types of benzimidazoles?

Febental (dogs/cats), Albendazole (dogs/cattle), and Fenbendazole (dogs/cats/cattle)

17

How do nitroimidazoles work?

Prodrugs producing cytotoxic metabolites.

18

What are the three nitrooimidazoles?

Metronidazole, Tinidazole, and Ronidazole

19

What is the absorption of nitroimidazoles like?

Good BA with PO adminstration

20

Where does metronidazole distribute to?

Extensively, even goes to the bone and hte brain

21

Where are nitroimidazoles metabolized?

Liver

22

Where is nitroimidazoles eliminated from?

Bile

23

What is the protocol for nitroimidazole use in food animals?

PROHIBITED

24

What is the reason behind the prohibition of mitroimidazoles in food animals?

Mutagenic/carcinogenic potential

25

Which nitroimidazoles are used to treat dogs with giardia?

Metronidazole, tinidazole, and ronidazole

26

Which nitroimidazoles are used to treat cats with giardia?

Metronidazole and tinidazole

27

What causes trichomoniasis?

trichomonas foetis

28

What are the symptoms of trichomonoiasis in cats?

Large bowel diarrhea. Self-limiting but can take up to 2 years to clear from the cat.

29

What is the DOC for trichomonoiasis in cats?

Ronidazole

30

What is the route of transmission of trichomonias in cattle?

Sexual intercourse

31

What is infection like in cattle with trichomonias?

Bulls - persistently infected and normally culled. Cows are self-limiting.

32

What are the four possible diseases with trypanosomiasis?

Chagas, Surram, Dourine, and Nagana

33

Which of the four trypanosomias is endemic to the western hemisphere?

Chagas disease

34

What is the infectious organism in Chagas disease?

Trypanosoma cruzi

35

What is the vector for chagas disease?

Reduviid bugs

36

What animals does chagas disease infect?

Puppies and kittens. No approved therapy in the US.

37

What is babesiosis transmitted by?

Ticks

38

What is the main action to prevent babesiosis infections?

Tick prevention

39

How does babesiosis cause disease?

Pathogenic stages infect RBC's, which are then destroyed by immune attack

40

What are the symptoms seen with babesiosis?

Anemia, Splenomegaly, Depression, and Anorexia

41

What are the three types of babesiosis that infects dogs?

Canis, Gibsoni, and Conradae

42

What is the approve therapy for dogs with babeosisi?

Azithromycin and atovaquone (hydroxyquinolone)

43

What is another name for babeosis in cattle?

Texas fever

44

What are the babesia that infect cattle?

Bigemina

45

Which of the babesia are reportable?

B. bidemina

46

What is the mechanism of imidocarb diproprionate?

DNA Denaturing agent

47

How is imidocarb diproprionate adminstered?

IM or SC

48

How is imidocarb diproprionate excreted?

Urine (up to 1.5 days) and Feces (for up to 10 days)

49

What are the adverse effects of imidocarb diproprionate?

Injection site pain/inflammation, cholinergic signs, and renal tubular/hepatic necrosis

50

What is the mechanism by which atovaquone works?

Electron transport chain inhibitor

51

How is atovaquone absorbed.

Doubled when given with fatty meal

52

How is atovaquone distributed in the body?

Significant binding to plasma proteins

53

How is cryptosporidiosis transmitted?

Contaminated water

54

What is the pathogenic stage of cryptosporidium?

Schizonts

55

What crypto infects ruminants?

C. Parvum

56

How old are ruminants when they are susceptible to C. Parvum?

5 to 35 days

57

What are the signs in food animals when infected by C. Parvum?

Anorexia, weight-loss, diarrhea, and tenesmus

58

What are the signs in cats/dogs when infected by crypto?

None for the most part.

59

What are the treatments for food animals infected with crypto?

Supportive, halofuginone reduces shedding

60

What drug is used in both dogs and cats to treat a crypto infection?

Paromomycin sulfact

61

What is the side effect to paromomycin use in dogs and cats?

AKI, cataracts, and deafness

62

What drug is used in cats with crypto infection?

Nitazoxanide

63

What are the side effects to Niazoxanide in cats?

Severe vomiting and diarrhea

64

What does Niaoxanide do to crypto in cats? What reverses this effect?

Induces carrier state, reactivated by cortiocosteroid treatment

65

What are the two forms of leshmaniasis?

Visceral and cutaneous

66

What type of lesmania is seen in the US?

Leishmania infantum

67

How is leishmania treated in the US?

Since it is a reportable disease you must contact the CDC. The CDC once notified will then bring the drugs to you. The drugs are meglumine antimoniate and sodium atibogluconate.

68

How do the leishmania drugs work?

Inhibit leishmania nucleotide synthesis, topoisomerases, and phosphofructokinase

69

What causes EPM?

Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi

70

What type of host is a horse to EPM pathogens?

Dead-end, intermediate host. Therefore they can not spread the disease once infected.

71

How does transmission of EPM occur?

Consumption of food or water contaminated with feces of definitive host

72

What is the most common sign of EPM?

Asymmetric ataxia

73

What is the most common sign of EPM?

Asymmetric ataxia

74

What is the FDA approved method of treating EPM?

Ponazuril or diclazuril +/- sulfadiazine pyrimethamine

75

What EPM treatment is currently under review?

Decoquinate + levamisole

76

What tends to be the prognosis of EPM?

Tend to relapse. If this is the case there is no protocol for treatment. Tend to just add another anti-protozoal drug to the treatment.

77

What are the two thiazine derivatives?

Ponazuril and Diclazuril

78

How do thiazine derivatives work?

Interfere with apicoplast function needed for FA synthesis, AA synthesis, and starch storage.

79

What are the adverse effects of ponazuril?

Blisters, rash, diarrhea, mild colic, and seizures

80

What are the adverse effects of ponazuril?

Blisters, rash, diarrhea, mild colic, and seizures

81

What are the side effects of diclazuril?

None reported

82

Which of the thiazine derivatives has the better BA?

Ponazuril (30%)

83

What animals are infected by hepatozoonosis?

Dogs + Coyotes

84

What causes hepatozoonosis?

Hepatozoon Americanum

85

What is the cause of transmission of hepatozoonosis?

Ingestion of infective oocysts in ticks or paratenic hosts.

86

What are the pathogenic stages of hepatozoonosis?

Schizonts and gamonts

87

What are the signs of a hepatozoonotic infection?

Severe neutrophilic lymphocytosis. Marked joint pain associated with myositis and periosteal proliferation.

88

What is the main treatment for hepatozoonosis?

Tick prevention

89

What is the drug protocols for hepatozoonosis?

Sulfadiazine-trimehtoprim + clindamycin + pyrimethamine/ Imidocarb proprionate, decoquinate

90

What is decoquinate used for specifically when it comes to hepatozoonosis?

Stand-alone to prolong remission following treatment

91

What is neosporosis caused by?

Neospora caninum

92

How is neosporosis transmitted?

Fecal-oral

93

What is the definitive host for neosporosis?

Dogs

94

What are the signs of a neosporosis infection?

Enchepalomyelitis, myositis, neuromuscular (stiffness, atrophy, paresis, paralysis, and dysphagia)

95

What are the intermediate hosts for neosporsis?

Dogs, Cattle, Sheep, Horses, and Deer

96

What are the infective agents in neospora?

Tissue cysts

97

What are the infective agents in neospora?

Tissue cysts

98

What are the signs of a neosporosis infection?

Abortions

99

What are the treatments for neosporosis in cattle?

All prevention. Keep dogs out of cattle feed. Stop dogs from ingesting placentas or fetuses from abortions

100

What are the treatments for dogs with neosporosis?

Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim + pyrimethamine, clindamycin, clindamycin followed by first two

101

What is the treatment prognosis of neosporosis in dogs?

Does not eliminate tissue cysts. Slows the progression of the disease. Should be started before extensor rigidity occurs.

102

What is the infectious agent in toxoplasmosis?

Toxoplasma gondii

103

Where in the body does toxoplasmosis live?

GI tract

104

What is the definitive host of toxoplasma?

Felids

105

What are the intermediate hosts for toxoplasma?

Any mammal

106

How is toxoplasma transmitted?

Fecal-oral or ingestion of tissue cyts

107

How long do cats shed toxoplasma?

Shed oocytes occurs 3 to 21 days following infection

108

How long do toxoplasma oocytes survive in the environment?

Months to years, resistant to most disinfectants

109

What are the signs of a toxoplasma infection in a healthy, adult cat?

Diarrhea, though any signs are rare

110

What is the differiential for a toxoplasmosis infection in dogs?

Neosporosis

111

What is the differiential for a toxoplasmosis infection in dogs?

Neosporosis

112

What does theileriosis infect?

Ruminants

113

What is the thelieriosis found in the US?

T. Mutans

114

What is the vector for thelieriosis?

Ticks

115

What causes coccidiosis in ruminants and some brids?

Eimeria

116

What causes coccidiosis in dogs, cats, and pigs?

Isospora

117

How is coccidiosis transmitted?

Fecal-oral and consumption of rodents

118

What can pre-dispose an animal to coccidiosis infection?

High density housing and shipping stress

119

What are the clinical signs to a coccidiosis infection?

Diarrhea +/- blood, dehydration, poor production, can be fatal in young animals

120

Which of the coccidiosis is self-limiting?

Eimeria

121

How is coccidiosis prevented?

Sanitatoin is most important. Keep food seperate from housing, and do not feed raw meet.

122

What two drugs that are used in coccidiosis infections compete with AA synthesis? Which AA's?

Amprolium (Thiamine) and Robenidine (Guanine)

123

What are the adverse effects of amprolium?

Thiamine deficiency, depression, anorexia, diarrhea, neurological signs

124

Coccidiosis drug treatment in what species: Amprolium

All

125

Coccidiosis drug treatment in what species: Decoquinate

Ruminants and birds

126

Coccidiosis drug treatment in what species: Declazuril

Birds

127

Coccidiosis drug treatment in what species: Robendine

Birds

128

Coccidiosis drug treatment in what species: Halofuginone

Birds

129

Coccidiosis drug treatment in what species: Ionophore antibiotics

Ruminants/birds (monensin, lasalocid) and Birds (maduramicin, narasin, semduramicin, salinomycin)

130

Coccidiosis drug treatment in what species:Sulfadimethoxine

Ruminants and birds

131

What is used to treat coccidiosis infections in dogs and cats?

Sulfadimethoxine + ormetoprim, sulfadiazine + trimethoprim, and sulfadimethozine

132

Which of the protozoa are reportable?

Leishmania, B. bigemina,

133

Which of the protozoa are zoonotic?

T. Gondii, N. Caninum, Leishmania, C. parvum, Trypanosomiasis, Giardia