What bacterial group is most commonly the ones that undergo conjugation?
What drugs cannot be used in food animals? (8)
Sulfonamides - lactating cattle
Mechanism of action - Macrolides
Drugs for: Cell membrane
Component of transformation -
What are the five chemotherapy agents that cause renal toxicity?
Mutation type for Quinolone resistance?
Gyrase gene mutation
Mechanism of resistance - Beta lactams
Modification of PBP's
Change of porins
How is Staph Aureus resistant?
Penicllinase via a plasmid
Mechanism of action - Fluoroquinolones
How is multiple drug resistance transmitted between bacteria?
How does conjugation pass along antibacterial resistance?
Passage of genes from cell to cell by DIRECT CONTACT through sex pilus or bridge
Can spread multi-drug resistance
How does transformation cause resistance to be passed along?
Incorporation of DNA that has been found free in the environment into the bacterial genome
What are the eight chemotherapy agents that cause hepatotoxicty?
What are the two chemotherapy agents that cause photosensitivity?
Component of conjugation -
Transfer of genes through sex pilus
Describe bactericidal activity
No remarkable difference between bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations
Drugs for: Protein synthesis 50s
What are the three methods by which horizontal transfer can occur?
Mechanism of action - Sulfonamides
Inhibition of folic acid synthesis
What are the two drugs that can cause hemolytic anemias?
What are the ways resistance can be acquired?
Drugs for: DNA-Dependent RNA polymerase
Mechanism of action - Chloramphenicol
What are the three antibacterial agents that have become useless due to an increase in resistance in previously susceptible cells?
What are the six mechanisms that a bacteria can be resistant to a drug?
Fails to absorb drug
Inactivates the drug
Pumps out drug
Target to drug is modified
Increased production of target molecules
Altered metabolic pathway bypassing drug target
Mechanism of resistance - Sulfonamides
Decreased sensitivity of the target enzymes
increased formation of PABA
Use of exogenous folate
Drugs for: DNA replication
What are the major adverse affects that occur with chemotherapy agents?
overextenstion of actions
organ directed toxcity
Mechanism of resistance - Aminoglycocides
Mechanism of resistance - Chloramphenicol
What is a common resistance that occurs with transformation? What bacterial types?
Pneumococci + Neisseria
Mechanism of action - Tetracyclines
Prevent binding the incoming charged tRNA
What are the three drugs that cause ototoxicity?
Mechanism of resistance - Tetracyclines
Why is it important to reach and maintain adequate blood levels of a chemotherapy agent?
Prevents the development of resistance
What is the mechanism that Penumococci is resistant to penicillin?
Produce altered penicillin-binding proteins that have low affinity binding of penicillin
Why is sulfonamides such a concern in food animals?
Accumulate in the kidney
Withdrawl times are long + highly variable
What method of acquired resistance is the most succesful
Plasmid involved resistance -
When entered into the genome of the bacteria only 50% off the daughter cells will get the mutation
What does it mean for a drug to be time dependent when it comes to killing?
Killing is not increased with increasing concentrations about MBC
What two bacterias commonly use conjugation for passing along resistance?
Shigella + Enterobacteriaceae
Can exchange between one another as well
Mechanism of resistance - Vancomycin
Change in pentapeptide
What antibactieral agents is Staph Aureus resistant to?
Mechanism of resistance - Macrolides
Methyltransferase alters the binding site
Mechanism of action - Beta Lactams
Inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis
Drugs for: Folic acid metabolism
Component of transduction -
Mechanism of resistance - Rifampin
Change in enzyme
What are the two methods by which bactericidal agents kill?
Drugs for: Protein synthesis - 30s
What two drugs are concentration dependent?
What does it mean for a bactericidal agent to be conentration dependent killing?
Rate and extent of killing dependent upon drug concentration
Mutation type in Rifampin resistance?
RNA polymerase gene mutation
What are the four ways that allergic reactions to these chemotherapy agents might present?
Immune induced blood dyscrasias
Immune hemolytic anemias
Where does conjugation tend to take place?
Intestinal tract - between nonpathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms
How does transduction cause resistance?
Invervention of a bacteriophage that has bacterial DNA incorporated within the protein coat
Mutation type for streptomycin resistance?
What are the two specific agents that are known to be hemopoietically toxic?
What are the special components to chemotherapy?
Selective toxicity (Parasite > Host)
Selects for resistant strains
Hypersensitivity + Organ directed toxicity
Lowers microorganism load (Host defense does the rest)
Drugs for: Periplasmic space
What two drugs are time dependent when it comes to their -cidal effects?
What is exchanged in conjugation between bacteria?
risstance transfer factor (RTF)
Describe bacteriostatic drugs
Bacteriostatic concentrations much lower than bactericidal
What drug is there a voluntary ban in food animals?
Mechanism of resistance - Fluoroquinolones
Change in sensitivity of TI
Drugs for: Cell wall synthesis
Mechanism of action - Vancomysin
Inhibition of peptidoglycan chain elongation
Mechanism of action - Aminoglycosides
Elicits premature termination by incorporating incorrect AA
Mechanism of action - Rifampin
Inhibits DNA dependent RNA polymerase
What bacteria is known for using transduction to spread resistance?
When is maintaince of constant blood levels most important?
With bacteriostatic drugs more so than bactericidal
How is resistance vertically passed?
Passed to offspring by selection