LEC 22 - Anti-Cestodals Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology II > LEC 22 - Anti-Cestodals > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 22 - Anti-Cestodals Deck (46):
1

What are the five basic mechanisms that anti-parasitic agents use?

Neurotoxins, DNA inhibitors, Metabolic inhibitors, Protein synthesis inhibitors, Membrane inhibitors, and Development inhibitors

2

Which of the five mechanisms are used against Helminths?

Neurotoxins and Metabolic inhibitors

3

Which of the five mechanisms are used against external parasites?

Neurotoxins and Development inhibitors

4

Which of the five mechanisms are used against protozoa?

DNA inhibitors, Metabolic inhibitors, Protein synthesis inhibitors, and developmental inhibitors

5

What are the eight drug classes used as anti-helminthic drugs?

Isoquinolones, Chorsulon, Benzamidizoles, Piperazines, Imidathiazoles, Tetrahydropyrimidines, Macrocyclic lactones, and arsenicals

6

What are the three types of helminths?

Cestodes, Trematodes, and Nematodes

7

What types of drugs kill cestodes?

Isoquinolones

8

What types of drugs kill Trematodes?

Chorsulon and Benzamidizoles

9

What types of drugs kill Nematodes?

Benzamidizoles, Piperazines, Imidathiazoles, Tetrahydropyrimidines, and Macrocyclic lactones

10

What does arsenicals kill specifically?

D. Immitis

11

What is the basic anatomy of a tape worm?

Each segment has everything that it needs to reproduce

12

What is the method which is approved in cattle to kill tapeworm?

None

13

What are the two isoquinolones?

Praziquantal and epsiprantal

14

What are the two types of benzamidazoles?

Albendazole and Fenbendazole

15

What are the indications for praziquantel?

All tape worms in cats, dogs, and horses.

16

What is the pharmodynamic process for praziquantel?

Altered intracellular homeostasis, causes direct/indirect disruption of cellular metabolism, causing tenanic paralysis/tegumentary breakdown, causing host response, leading to dead tapeworm

17

How is praziquantel administered?

PO + IM + SC

18

How well is praziquantel absorbed?

Completely absorbed by the PO route

19

What is the BA of praziquantel?

Poor, due to first pass metabolism by liver

20

Where does praziquantel distribute within the body?

All throughout
+ CNS

21

How is praziquantel metabolized?

The metabolites produced are biologically active

22

How is praziquantel eliminated?

Urine, t1/2 = 3 hours

23

What are the adverse effects of praziquantel?

None, 5x the highest treatment dose is when it becomes toxic

24

What is the use of Epsiprantel in dogs?

Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis

25

What is the use of Epsiprantel in cats?

Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis

26

How is epsiprantel adminstered?

PO

27

How well is epsiprantel absorbed?

Very poorly absorbed

28

How is epsiprantel distributed/metabolized?

Not distributed or absorbed. Eliminated in the feces

29

How does epsiprantel work on cestodes?

Direct uptake of drug by the parasite, the host doesn't transfer the drug to the parasite like most of the other drugs

30

How do immature flukes move through out the body?

Penetrate GI and traverse peritoneum to liver (4 days). Migrate through liver and feed on tissue causing damage. Penetrates main bile ducts (~ 8 weeks).

31

What bacteria can immature flukes introduce into the blood stream?

Clostridium novyi

32

How long does it take flukes to mature?

~ 10 to 12 weeks

33

What pathologies do mature flukes cause?

Biliary hyperplasia and progressive occlusion

34

When can chorsulon be used in the fluke life cylce?

AFTER 8 weeks post infection

35

What is the chorsulon used for?

Fasciola spp. in cattle and sheep

36

What is ivomec plus?

Chorsulon and ivermectin. Covers nematodes and flukes

37

How does chorsulon work?

Stops glycolysis by inhibiting phosphoglyceromutase and phosphoglycerate kinase

38

How is chorsulon adminstered?

PO and SC

39

What is the BA for chorsulon?

55 to 60%

40

What special considerations do you have to make when using chorsulon SC?

Only effective 10 weeks post infection

41

How is chorsulon distributed throughout the body?

Remains in vasculature (75% in serum and 25% bound RBC)

42

What does chorsulon bind to within RBCs?

Carbonic anhydrase

43

How is chorsulon eliminated?

Unmetabolized, parent drug eliminated in urine

44

When can albendazole work?

12+ weeks post-infection

45

What is albendazole used for?

F. hepatica in cattle

46

What is febendazole used for?

F. gigatica in sheep