Flashcards in LEC 22 - Anti-Cestodals Deck (46):
What are the five basic mechanisms that anti-parasitic agents use?
Neurotoxins, DNA inhibitors, Metabolic inhibitors, Protein synthesis inhibitors, Membrane inhibitors, and Development inhibitors
Which of the five mechanisms are used against Helminths?
Neurotoxins and Metabolic inhibitors
Which of the five mechanisms are used against external parasites?
Neurotoxins and Development inhibitors
Which of the five mechanisms are used against protozoa?
DNA inhibitors, Metabolic inhibitors, Protein synthesis inhibitors, and developmental inhibitors
What are the eight drug classes used as anti-helminthic drugs?
Isoquinolones, Chorsulon, Benzamidizoles, Piperazines, Imidathiazoles, Tetrahydropyrimidines, Macrocyclic lactones, and arsenicals
What are the three types of helminths?
Cestodes, Trematodes, and Nematodes
What types of drugs kill cestodes?
What types of drugs kill Trematodes?
Chorsulon and Benzamidizoles
What types of drugs kill Nematodes?
Benzamidizoles, Piperazines, Imidathiazoles, Tetrahydropyrimidines, and Macrocyclic lactones
What does arsenicals kill specifically?
What is the basic anatomy of a tape worm?
Each segment has everything that it needs to reproduce
What is the method which is approved in cattle to kill tapeworm?
What are the two isoquinolones?
Praziquantal and epsiprantal
What are the two types of benzamidazoles?
Albendazole and Fenbendazole
What are the indications for praziquantel?
All tape worms in cats, dogs, and horses.
What is the pharmodynamic process for praziquantel?
Altered intracellular homeostasis, causes direct/indirect disruption of cellular metabolism, causing tenanic paralysis/tegumentary breakdown, causing host response, leading to dead tapeworm
How is praziquantel administered?
PO + IM + SC
How well is praziquantel absorbed?
Completely absorbed by the PO route
What is the BA of praziquantel?
Poor, due to first pass metabolism by liver
Where does praziquantel distribute within the body?
How is praziquantel metabolized?
The metabolites produced are biologically active
How is praziquantel eliminated?
Urine, t1/2 = 3 hours
What are the adverse effects of praziquantel?
None, 5x the highest treatment dose is when it becomes toxic
What is the use of Epsiprantel in dogs?
Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis
What is the use of Epsiprantel in cats?
Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis
How is epsiprantel adminstered?
How well is epsiprantel absorbed?
Very poorly absorbed
How is epsiprantel distributed/metabolized?
Not distributed or absorbed. Eliminated in the feces
How does epsiprantel work on cestodes?
Direct uptake of drug by the parasite, the host doesn't transfer the drug to the parasite like most of the other drugs
How do immature flukes move through out the body?
Penetrate GI and traverse peritoneum to liver (4 days). Migrate through liver and feed on tissue causing damage. Penetrates main bile ducts (~ 8 weeks).
What bacteria can immature flukes introduce into the blood stream?
How long does it take flukes to mature?
~ 10 to 12 weeks
What pathologies do mature flukes cause?
Biliary hyperplasia and progressive occlusion
When can chorsulon be used in the fluke life cylce?
AFTER 8 weeks post infection
What is the chorsulon used for?
Fasciola spp. in cattle and sheep
What is ivomec plus?
Chorsulon and ivermectin. Covers nematodes and flukes
How does chorsulon work?
Stops glycolysis by inhibiting phosphoglyceromutase and phosphoglycerate kinase
How is chorsulon adminstered?
PO and SC
What is the BA for chorsulon?
55 to 60%
What special considerations do you have to make when using chorsulon SC?
Only effective 10 weeks post infection
How is chorsulon distributed throughout the body?
Remains in vasculature (75% in serum and 25% bound RBC)
What does chorsulon bind to within RBCs?
How is chorsulon eliminated?
Unmetabolized, parent drug eliminated in urine
When can albendazole work?
12+ weeks post-infection
What is albendazole used for?
F. hepatica in cattle