LEC 1 - Repro I: Males + Intersex Flashcards Preview

Pathology II > LEC 1 - Repro I: Males + Intersex > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 1 - Repro I: Males + Intersex Deck (101):
1

What two things does an embryo have before it becomes a determined sex?

Gonadal ridge
-- and --
Two duct system

2

What are the two ducts in an unsexed embryo?

Mesonephric/Wolffian
-- and --
Paramesonephric/Mullerian

3

Which duct system is male?

Mesonephric/Wolffian

4

What are the three levels of differentiation?

Chromosomal
Gonadal
Phenotypic

5

What is the default sex?

Female

6

What occurs for a fetus to become a male?

SRY gene on Y chromosome
Makes testes via TDF
Testes secrete hormones to degrade Mullerian duct

7

What are the two hormones of a male?

Testosterone
-- and --
MIS

8

Where does MIS come from?

Sertoli cells

9

Where does testosterone come from?

Interstitial cells

10

What does testosterone do?

Stabilize Wolf ducts

11

Term: Intersex

Any condition where one level of sexuality does not match the rest

12

Term: True Hermaphrodites

Gonads of both sex

13

Term: Pseudo Hermaphrodites

Gonads of one sex, opposite accessories

14

Term: Sex Reversal

Chromosomal sex does not match gonads

15

Term: Free martinism

Environmentally determined intersexuality

16

What animal is most commonly a true hermaphrodite?

Goats + Swine

17

What is a true hermaphrodite most often genetically?

Female

18

Where do you normally find the gonads of a true hermaphrodite?

Pelvic cavity

19

What two things can occur with the gonads of a true hermaphrodite?

One ovary + One Testes
-- or --
Ovatestes

20

What part of an ovatestes is the ovary?

Cortex

21

What does an animal with two ovatestes look like anatomically?

hypoplastic uterus

22

Why does the animal with ovatestes have a hypoplastic uterus?

Not enough MIS secreted by the testicular tissue

23

What are most pseudohermaphrodites genetically?

Male

24

How does a male become a pseudoheraphrodite?

XY male's mullerian ducts fail to regress
-- or/and --
Androgen dependent structures fail to develope

25

How could a female become a pseudohermaphrodite?

XX female develop a male phenotype via a non-gonadal source

26

What are the two examples of sex reversal in animals?

Cocker spaniels
-- and--
Polled goats

27

When do cocker spaniels have sex reversal?

Genetic females is carrying TDF on her X chromosome

28

What occurs in polled goats that causes them to have sex reversal?

Sex-linked trait is connected to the polled gene

29

What genetic goats tend to have sex reversal?

XX karyotype
Homozygous for polled male pseudohermaphrodite

30

What is dominant, polled or horns?

Polled

31

What occurs with females that are homozygotes for the polled gene?

Polled heads with sex reversal

32

How does freemartinism occur in twin cattle?

the male and female twin end up having a fusionof the chorioallantoic circulation
The male passes some of its MIS to the female twin

33

What characteristics are seen in a female that has undergone freemartinism?

Incomplete vaginal development
Prominent seminal vesicles
reduced uterus
Small gonads - Ovatestis

34

What are some common causes of testicular hypoplasia?

Abnormal germ cells
In utero infections/intoxications
Nutritional deficiencies
Chromoosomal aberrations

35

What are the positions that a crytorchid teste could be in/

Intra/extra abdominal
-- and --
Uni/bilateral

36

What animals is crytorchism common in?

Pigs + Horses + Dogs

37

What is different about cryptorchidism in horses?

Dominant, heritable trait

38

What is bad about cryptorchidism?

Increased chance of primary neoplasm

39

What are the three most common things that occur in a retained teste?

Teratoma
Seminoma
Sertoli cell tumor

40

How are the possible causes of testicular degeneration?

Thermal
Age-associated
Sertoli cell tumors
Vascular

41

What vascular problems cause testicular degeneration?

Torsions + Infarctions

42

Why do sertoli cell tumors cause testicular degeneration?

Production of estrogen

43

What is grossly evident that tells you the testicles have shrank?

Small, won't bulge in cross section
Tunica albuginea is wrinkled
Firm

44

What histological changes do you see with testicular degeneration?

Cytoplasmic vaculation
Germinal cell desquamation
Intratubular multinucleated cells
Thick basement membranes
Intersitial fibrosis
Mineralization

45

What are the four primary testicular neoplasias?

Interstitial cell tumor
Sertoli Cell Tumor
Seminoma
Teratoma

46

What is the most common testicular cancer in dogs?

Leydig cell tumor

47

What is the gross features of a leydig cell tumor?

No overall increase in size
Discrete soft masses
Tan/yellow-orange
Areas of hemorrhage

48

What is the biologic behavior of a leydig cell tumor?

Grow slowly
Benign

49

What are leydig cell tumors commonly associated with?

Perianal gland neoplasias + Prostatic disease

50

In what situation are sertoli cell tumors most common?

Cryptorchids

51

What animals are sertoli cell tumors seen most often?

Older dogs
-- along with --
Bulls + Stallions

52

Where do sertoli cell tumors tend to metastisize?

Regional LN
-- or --
Spermatic cord

53

What are the gross features of a sertoli cell tumor?

Enlargement of the testicle
Masses are firm/hard
White

54

What are the histological features of a sertoli cell tumor?

Abundant stroma
Intrabular palisades of elongated cells

55

What is produced that causes biological changes in dogs with sertoli cell tumors?

Estrogen

56

What happens due to the high estrogen levels that occur with sertoli cell tumors?

Attracted to male dogs
Decreased libido
Mammary development
Perineal hernias
Penile atrophy

57

What is seminoma?

Neoplasm of spermatogonia

58

What is the female counterpart to seminoma?

Dysgerminoma

59

When is seminoma most commonly seen?

Cryptorchid testis

60

What are the gross features of a seminoma?

Enlargement of the testis
Homogenous, soft/pale appearance on cut section

61

What is the cellular origin of testicular teratoma?

Totipotential

62

What is epididymitis

Inflammation of the epididymis

63

What often causes epididmyitis (basic)?

Infection coming from retrograde spread of gentiourinary passages

64

What is the infectious cause of epididymitis in sheep?

Brucella ovis

65

What is the appearance of epididymitis in sheep with Burcella Ovis?

Epididymal tail
Leading to sperm statsis + sperm granuloma
TESTIS PROPER NOT INVOLVED

66

What can cause a non-infectious form of epididymitis?

Congenital obstruction in excretory ducts
-- or --
Trauma

67

By what mechanism does the non-infectious form of epididymitis occur?

Blockage of sperm causes it to extrude from ducts into CT
Leads to granulomatous inflammatory response

68

What is orchitis?

Inflammation of the testis

69

What is most common route of infection that causes orchitisis?

hematogenous

70

Cause of Orchitis: Bulls

Brucella abortus

71

Cause of Orchitis: Boars

Brucella suis

72

Cause of Orchitis:Dogs

Canine distemper virus
E. Coli
Brucella Canis

73

Appearance of Orchitis: Brucella abortus

Fibrino-purulent + necrotizing lesions
Extends from tunic to entire testis

74

Appearance of Orchitis: Brucella suis

Abscesses in testis proper + epididymis

75

Appearance of Orchitis: Brucella Canis

Inflammation of:
testis proper + epididymus + prostate + scrotal dermatitis

76

What animals is seminal vesciulitis most common?

Young bulls

77

What is the common pathogen that causes seminal vesiculitis?

Truperella pyogenes

78

What is the route of infection with seminal vesiculitis?

Hematogenous
-- or --
Ascending

79

What is balanitis?

Inflammation fo the foreskin + head of penis

80

Common cause of Balanitis: Bull

IBR - Bovine herpes virus 1

81

Common cause of Balanitis: Stallion

Equine coital exanthema (EHV-3)
-- and --
Cutaneous habronemiasis

82

Common cause of Balanitis: Sheep + Pigs

Anatomic
-- and --
bacterial infections

83

Common cause of Balanitis: Rabbits

Treponema cuniculi

84

What is a penile neoplasia seen in young bulls?

Bovine transmissible fibropapilloma

85

What is the gross appearance of SCC of the penis/prepuce?

Superfical ulcerations + necrosis
-- and --
Papillary appearance

86

What can SCC look a lot like?

Cutaneous habronemiasis

87

What is the histological appearance of SCC?

nests of cohesive cells with squamous differentiation
morphologic + nuclear atypia
central keratin pearl formation

88

What is a transmissable form of neoplasia?

Transmissible Veneral tumor

89

What is different about the cells involved in transmissible venereal tumor?

59 karotype when normal dog is 78

90

What is the gross appearance of a transmissible venereal tumor?

Papular to papillary

91

What is the histopathologic appearance of a transmissible venereal tumor?

Cells are round + oval w/ mitoses frequent

92

What can cause prostatic hyperplasia?

Endrodrin imbalance or testosterone effect

93

What can cause prostatic atrophy?

Castration (removal of testosterone)

94

What can cause prostatic squamous metaplasia?

Estrogenic effect

95

What pathology causes prostatic squamous metaplasia?

Sertoli Cell tumors

96

What is prostatitis?

Asymmetrical enlargement of prostate with pain on palpation

97

What are the symptoms seen with prostatisits?

Blood/exudate in urine
-- and --
dysuria

98

What animals are most commonly seen with prostatic adenocarcinoma?

Older dogs

99

What is the gross appearance of prostatic adenocarcinoma?

Asymmetric + Fibrosis
Local invason

100

Where does prostatic adenocarcinoma tend to metastisize?

Sublumbar LN
-- or --
Bone

101

What are the primary differentials for prostatic adenocarcinoma?

Transitional cell carcinoma of bladder/urethra