LEC 11 - GI I + II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LEC 11 - GI I + II Deck (103):
1

What are the four kind of GI tracts?

Non-ruminant herbivore 

Ruminant herbivore 

Carnivore

Insectivore

2

What are the characteristics of a non-ruminant herbivore?

Simple stomach 

Large cecum 

3

What are the characteristics of a ruminant herbivore?

Four-chambered stomach 

Large rumen 

Long small/large intestine

4

What are the characteristics of a insectivore's GI tracT?

Short intestine 

No cecum

5

What are the characteristics of a carnivore's GI tract?

Short intestines + colon 

Small cecum 

6

What are the two developmental abnormalities that can occur if the mouth does fuse properly?

Palatoschisis

Cheiloschisis 

7

Describe: Palatoschisis 

Cleft palate 

8

What failed to fuse with palatoschisis?

Lateral palatine process

9

Describe: Cheiloschisis

Cleft lip

10

What failed to fuse with Cheiloschisis?

Upper lip along the midline or philtrum

11

What can both cleft palate + lip cause in young animals?

Failure to suckle 

Aspiration pneumonia 

12

What diseases can cause vesicular stomatides?

FMD 

Vesicular stomatitis 

Vesicular exanthema of swine 

Swine vesicular disease

13

Viral cause: FMD

Picornavirus 

14

Viral cause: Vesicular stomatitis

Rhabdovirus

15

Viral cause: Vesicular exanthema of swine

Calicivirus 

16

Viral cause: Swine vesicular disease

Enterovirus 

17

Animals affected: FMD

Ruminants + 

Pigs + 

18

Animals affected: Vesicular stomatitis 

Ruminants ++ 

Pigs + 

Horses + 

19

Animals affected: Vesicular exanthema of Swine

Pigs ++ 

20

What TYPE of viruses cause vesicular stomatitides?

Epitheliotropic

21

Describe: Vesicular stomatitides

Epithelial cytolysis 

Fluid accumulation 

Followed by rupture of resultant vesicle 

22

What gross lesions are seen with vesicular stomatitides?

Fluid-filled vesicles

Present: 

1. Oral cavity 

2. Lips 

3. Rostral palate 

4. Tongue 

--- can extend to esophagus, stomach, or intestinal epi. 

23

What are the seven causes of erosive/ulcerative stoamtides?

BVD

Rinderpest 

Malignant catarrhal fever 

Bluetongue 

Feline calicivirus 

NSAID's 

Uremia ulcers

24

Cause of: BVD

Pestivirus

25

Cause of: Rinderpest

Morbillivirus 

26

What two diseases are seen from teh parapox viruses?

Bovine popular stomatitis 

Contagious ecthyma (Orf) 

27

What is bovine popular stomatitis characterized by?

Papules/plaques

Located: 

Nares + Muzzle + Gingiva + Buccal Cavity + Palate + Tongue + Esophagus + Rumen + Obasum 

28

What is Orf characterized by?

Macules + Papules + Scabs + Scars 

Located: 

Corners of mouth + Mouth + Udders + Teats + Coronary bands + Anus 

 

--- sometimes found in rumen + esophagus 

29

What histological changes are seen with papular stomatits?

Cytoplasmic swelling of epithelial cells of stratum spinosum 

Late stages: 

Intracytoplasmic eosinophilic parapoxvirus inclusions 

30

What animals is necrotizing stomatides present in?

Cattle 

Sheep 

Pigs

31

What is another name for necrotizing stomatides in calves?

Calf diphtheria 

32

What causes necrotizing stomatides?

Fusobacterium necrophorum 

33

Describe: Fusobacterium necrophorum

Filamentous to Rod to Cocci 

Gram (-) 

Anaerobe bacteria

34

What does Noma present in?

Dogs 

Primates

35

What is Noma?

Severe form of oral ischemic necrosis 

Intralesional spirochetes + Fusiform bacteria 

36

What type of laryngitis occurs with calf diphtheria?

Necrotizing laryngitis 

37

What is the gross presentation of necrotizing stomatitis?

Dorsal surface of tongue ulcerated 

Ulcers covered by diphtheric membranes

38

What breed of dog most commonly gets gingival hyperplasia?

Brachycephalic dogs 

> 5 years old 

39

What is a benign tumor of the periodontal ligament?

Fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin 

40

What tumor can arise from the rests of Malassez?

Acanthomatous epulis 

-- or -- 

Acanthomatous Ameloblastoma 

41

What are the characteristics of Acanthomatous epulis/ameloblastoma?

Aggresssive/destructive tumor 

Invades bone 

 

42

What is the rests of Malassez?

Epithelial tooth germ 

43

Where does SCC occur in cats?

Tongue 

44

Where does SCC occur in dogs?

tonsils

45

What breeds most commonly get Melanomas?

Scottish terriers 

Airedales 

Cocker spaniels 

Golden retrievers 

Bedlington terriers 

Duroc pigs 

46

What animals most commonly gte fibrosarcomas?

Cats

47

What viruses can cause enamel hypoplasia?

CDV 

-- or -- 

BVDV 

48

What can happen in dogs that causes enamel hyoplasia?

Hyperthemia

49

When does hyperthermia or CDV have to occur in dogs to result in enamel hypoplasia?

Before eruption of teeth 

50

When does a BDVD infection have to occur to result in enamel hypoplasia?

In utero 

When ameloblasts are infected before enamel formation

51

What is dental attrition/

Dental wear 

with exposure of dentin  OR pulp cavity 

 

52

What is dental attrition known as in horses?

Step mouth 

-- or -- 

Broken mouth 

53

What can dental attrition lead to?

Dental infection

54

What is infundibular impaction?

~ dental caries 

55

What can infundibular impactions lead to ?

Pulpitis 

Endodontitis 

56

What happens that causes infundibular impactions?

Feed material is ground into teeth infundibulum 

Bacteria that is present there digests enamel + dentin 

57

What bacteria causes wooden tongue?

Actinobacillus lignieresii

58

What animals can get wooden tongue?

Bovids 

Equids 

Small ruminants

59

What happens in cases of wooden tongue?

Granulomatous inflammatory rxn 

Progresses to fibrosis 

60

What is present on histological examination with wooden tongue infections?

Radiating, amorphic + eosinophilic clublike structures 

Composed of immunoglobulines from intralesional plasma cells 

61

What phenomenon is seen with wooden tongue?

Splendore-Hoeppli 

62

What causes thrush?

Candida albicans 

63

What anatomical structures are infected with thrush?

Tongue 

Esophagus 

64

How does thrush occur?

Secondary disease

Due to antibiotic treatment which kills normal flora 

-- and -- 

High sugar diet 

65

What is seen grossly with trush?

Psudomembrane of hyphae present on tongue 

Normal mucosa present underneath 

66

What is seen grossly with wooden tongue infections?

Chronic inflammation will lead to loss of muscle 

Replaced by fibrous tissue 

Will see white bands of CT 

67

What is the splendore-hoeppli rxn?

Colony of bacteria with surrounding radiating "clubs" of immunoglobulins 

 

68

What is achalasia?

Motility disorder of the esophagus

69

What are the two types of achalasias?

Cricopharyngeal 

-- and -- 

Acquired

70

What breeds of dogs get cricopharyngeal achalasia?

Miniature poodles 

Cocker spaniels 

Terriers 

71

What causes cricopharyngeal achalasia?

Congenital 

Innervation of upper schincter 

72

What causes acquired achalasia?

Visable abnormality of musculature of deglutition 

73

What is another name for megaesophagus?

Esophageal ectasia 

74

What causes congenital megaesophagus?

Partial blockage due to persistant right fourth aortic arch 

Forms a ring around esophagus

75

What breeds of dogs most commonly have the congenital form of megaesophagus?

German shepherds 

Irish setters 

Grey hounds 

76

What cause the causes of acquired megaesophagus?

Idiopathic 

Secondary to myositis 

Myathenia gravis 

Hypothyroidism 

Peripherial neuropathies

77

What physically occurs that causes the acquired form of megaesophagus?

Failure of relaxation of cardiac sphicter 

78

What is the gross presentation of the congenital form of megaesophagus? 

Dilation of the esophagus cranial to the heart 

79

What is the gross presentation of the acquired form of megaesophagus in dogs?

Dilated esophagus cranilas to the diaphragm 

Leads to displaced right lung caudally + ventrally 

80

What is a hiatal hernia?

Protrution of the abdominal esophagus + cardia through the diaphragm into the throax

81

What animals tend to get idiopathic muscular hypertrophy?

Horses 

Pigs 

82

What tends to occur with idiopathic muscular atrophy of the esophagus?

Nothing 

Rarely plays a role in esophageal impaction 

83

What are two common parasites that affect the esophagus?

Gonglyonema 

-- and -- 

Spiroceca lupi 

84

What does Gonglyonema affect?

Ruminants 

Pigs 

Horses 

Primates

85

Where in the body does Gonglyonema live?

Esophageal mucosa

86

What animal is Spirocerca lupi most pathogenic in?

Canids 

87

What cancers can occur with Spirocerca lupi?

Fibrosarcoma 

-- and -- 

Osteosarcoma 

88

What Spirocerca lupi do once in an animal?

Penetrates gastric mucosa 

Reaches aorta 

Causes mural granulomas 

Granulomas can transform into cancer 

89

What causes acid reflux esophagitis?

Erosions/Ulcerations 

Due to chemical buring from reflux of stomach acid 

90

What is choke?

Esophageal obstruction due to stenosis or blockage

91

What can occur with choke?

Circumferential pressure necrosis of the esophageal mucosa

92

What is the gross presentation of acid reflux esophagitis?

Dark red streaks on surface of esophagus 

Areas of epithelial loss secondary to gastric acid reflux 

White streaks/vertially linear areas on surface of esophagus 

Hyperplastic mucosal epithelium 

93

What is diagnostic of acid reflud esophagitis?

Erosions most severe in esophageal mucosa adjacent to cardia + extend to orad 

94

How long does it take pressure necrosis to occur with choke?

Longer than 2 days 

95

What are the neoplasias that can occur in the esophagus? (Five) 

Papillomatosis 

SCC 

Leiomyomas/sarcomas 

Fibrosarcomas 

Lymphoma 

96

What neoplasias are known to occur with bracken fern consumption?

Papillomatosis 

-- and -- 

SCC 

97

Where do leiomyomas/sarcomas arise from?

Smooth muscle layers

98

What are fibrosarcomas associated with in dogs?

Spirocerca lupi infestations 

99

What does lymphoma sporadically occur as?

Mural neoplasm

100

What is the gross presentation of papillomatosis due to bovine papilloma virus?

Multiple papillomas 

Characteristic of viral induced disease 

Oral papillomas may be present as well 

101

What is the gross presentation of leiomyomas?

Submucosal proliferation of SM cells 

Bulges into esophageal lumen 

Can lead to obstructions 

102

What is the gross presentation of lymphoma? 

Masses of submucosal proliferating malignant lymphocytes 

Bulge into esophageal lumen 

Parital obstruction 

 

103

How do you know if the esophageal mucosa is still intact with things like lymphoma?

Mass is smooth and shiny