What are the four kind of GI tracts?
What are the characteristics of a non-ruminant herbivore?
What are the characteristics of a ruminant herbivore?
Long small/large intestine
What are the characteristics of a insectivore's GI tracT?
What are the characteristics of a carnivore's GI tract?
Short intestines + colon
What are the two developmental abnormalities that can occur if the mouth does fuse properly?
What failed to fuse with palatoschisis?
Lateral palatine process
What failed to fuse with Cheiloschisis?
Upper lip along the midline or philtrum
What can both cleft palate + lip cause in young animals?
Failure to suckle
What diseases can cause vesicular stomatides?
Vesicular exanthema of swine
Swine vesicular disease
Viral cause: FMD
Viral cause: Vesicular stomatitis
Viral cause: Vesicular exanthema of swine
Viral cause: Swine vesicular disease
Animals affected: FMD
Animals affected: Vesicular stomatitis
Animals affected: Vesicular exanthema of Swine
What TYPE of viruses cause vesicular stomatitides?
Describe: Vesicular stomatitides
Followed by rupture of resultant vesicle
What gross lesions are seen with vesicular stomatitides?
1. Oral cavity
3. Rostral palate
--- can extend to esophagus, stomach, or intestinal epi.
What are the seven causes of erosive/ulcerative stoamtides?
Malignant catarrhal fever
Cause of: BVD
Cause of: Rinderpest
What two diseases are seen from teh parapox viruses?
Bovine popular stomatitis
Contagious ecthyma (Orf)
What is bovine popular stomatitis characterized by?
Nares + Muzzle + Gingiva + Buccal Cavity + Palate + Tongue + Esophagus + Rumen + Obasum
What is Orf characterized by?
Macules + Papules + Scabs + Scars
Corners of mouth + Mouth + Udders + Teats + Coronary bands + Anus
--- sometimes found in rumen + esophagus
What histological changes are seen with papular stomatits?
Cytoplasmic swelling of epithelial cells of stratum spinosum
Intracytoplasmic eosinophilic parapoxvirus inclusions
What animals is necrotizing stomatides present in?
What is another name for necrotizing stomatides in calves?
What causes necrotizing stomatides?
Describe: Fusobacterium necrophorum
Filamentous to Rod to Cocci
What does Noma present in?
What is Noma?
Severe form of oral ischemic necrosis
Intralesional spirochetes + Fusiform bacteria
What type of laryngitis occurs with calf diphtheria?
What is the gross presentation of necrotizing stomatitis?
Dorsal surface of tongue ulcerated
Ulcers covered by diphtheric membranes
What breed of dog most commonly gets gingival hyperplasia?
> 5 years old
What is a benign tumor of the periodontal ligament?
Fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin
What tumor can arise from the rests of Malassez?
-- or --
What are the characteristics of Acanthomatous epulis/ameloblastoma?
What is the rests of Malassez?
Epithelial tooth germ
Where does SCC occur in cats?
Where does SCC occur in dogs?
What breeds most commonly get Melanomas?
What animals most commonly gte fibrosarcomas?
What viruses can cause enamel hypoplasia?
-- or --
What can happen in dogs that causes enamel hyoplasia?
When does hyperthermia or CDV have to occur in dogs to result in enamel hypoplasia?
Before eruption of teeth
When does a BDVD infection have to occur to result in enamel hypoplasia?
When ameloblasts are infected before enamel formation
What is dental attrition/
with exposure of dentin OR pulp cavity
What is dental attrition known as in horses?
-- or --
What can dental attrition lead to?
What is infundibular impaction?
~ dental caries
What can infundibular impactions lead to ?
What happens that causes infundibular impactions?
Feed material is ground into teeth infundibulum
Bacteria that is present there digests enamel + dentin
What bacteria causes wooden tongue?
What animals can get wooden tongue?
What happens in cases of wooden tongue?
Granulomatous inflammatory rxn
Progresses to fibrosis
What is present on histological examination with wooden tongue infections?
Radiating, amorphic + eosinophilic clublike structures
Composed of immunoglobulines from intralesional plasma cells
What phenomenon is seen with wooden tongue?
What causes thrush?
What anatomical structures are infected with thrush?
How does thrush occur?
Due to antibiotic treatment which kills normal flora
-- and --
High sugar diet
What is seen grossly with trush?
Psudomembrane of hyphae present on tongue
Normal mucosa present underneath
What is seen grossly with wooden tongue infections?
Chronic inflammation will lead to loss of muscle
Replaced by fibrous tissue
Will see white bands of CT
What is the splendore-hoeppli rxn?
Colony of bacteria with surrounding radiating "clubs" of immunoglobulins
What is achalasia?
Motility disorder of the esophagus
What are the two types of achalasias?
-- and --
What breeds of dogs get cricopharyngeal achalasia?
What causes cricopharyngeal achalasia?
Innervation of upper schincter
What causes acquired achalasia?
Visable abnormality of musculature of deglutition
What is another name for megaesophagus?
What causes congenital megaesophagus?
Partial blockage due to persistant right fourth aortic arch
Forms a ring around esophagus
What breeds of dogs most commonly have the congenital form of megaesophagus?
What cause the causes of acquired megaesophagus?
Secondary to myositis
What physically occurs that causes the acquired form of megaesophagus?
Failure of relaxation of cardiac sphicter
What is the gross presentation of the congenital form of megaesophagus?
Dilation of the esophagus cranial to the heart
What is the gross presentation of the acquired form of megaesophagus in dogs?
Dilated esophagus cranilas to the diaphragm
Leads to displaced right lung caudally + ventrally
What is a hiatal hernia?
Protrution of the abdominal esophagus + cardia through the diaphragm into the throax
What animals tend to get idiopathic muscular hypertrophy?
What tends to occur with idiopathic muscular atrophy of the esophagus?
Rarely plays a role in esophageal impaction
What are two common parasites that affect the esophagus?
-- and --
What does Gonglyonema affect?
Where in the body does Gonglyonema live?
What animal is Spirocerca lupi most pathogenic in?
What cancers can occur with Spirocerca lupi?
-- and --
What Spirocerca lupi do once in an animal?
Penetrates gastric mucosa
Causes mural granulomas
Granulomas can transform into cancer
What causes acid reflux esophagitis?
Due to chemical buring from reflux of stomach acid
What is choke?
Esophageal obstruction due to stenosis or blockage
What can occur with choke?
Circumferential pressure necrosis of the esophageal mucosa
What is the gross presentation of acid reflux esophagitis?
Dark red streaks on surface of esophagus
Areas of epithelial loss secondary to gastric acid reflux
White streaks/vertially linear areas on surface of esophagus
Hyperplastic mucosal epithelium
What is diagnostic of acid reflud esophagitis?
Erosions most severe in esophageal mucosa adjacent to cardia + extend to orad
How long does it take pressure necrosis to occur with choke?
Longer than 2 days
What are the neoplasias that can occur in the esophagus? (Five)
What neoplasias are known to occur with bracken fern consumption?
-- and --
Where do leiomyomas/sarcomas arise from?
Smooth muscle layers
What are fibrosarcomas associated with in dogs?
Spirocerca lupi infestations
What does lymphoma sporadically occur as?
What is the gross presentation of papillomatosis due to bovine papilloma virus?
Characteristic of viral induced disease
Oral papillomas may be present as well
What is the gross presentation of leiomyomas?
Submucosal proliferation of SM cells
Bulges into esophageal lumen
Can lead to obstructions
What is the gross presentation of lymphoma?
Masses of submucosal proliferating malignant lymphocytes
Bulge into esophageal lumen
How do you know if the esophageal mucosa is still intact with things like lymphoma?
Mass is smooth and shiny