LEC 10 - Hemo-lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LEC 10 - Hemo-lymphatic System Deck (202):
1

What are the two major defense mechanisms within the erythrocytes?

Glycolytic pathway + Pentose shunt pathway

2

What does the glycolytic pathway do?

Produce NADH - helps in the conversion of methemoglobin to hemoglobin

3

What does the pentose pathway do?

Produce NADPH - maintains glutathione in the reduced state

4

What are the eight responses to injury that bone marrow can undergo?

Hyper/hypoplasia + Dysplasia + Myelopthisis + Aplasia + Neoplasia + Myelofibrosis + Inflammation/Necrosis

5

What are the causes of hyperplasia in bone marrow?

Response to stimulus 

Secondary phenomenon to a stimulus 

Idiopathic 

6

Term: Hypoplasia of bone marrow

Decrease in bone marrow hematopoietic tissue

7

Term: Dysplasia of Bone Marrow

Abnormally large size of hemopoietic tissue 

8

Term: Myelophthisis

Replacement of mematopoietic tissue in bone marrow by another tissue

9

What are the possible causes of decrease in the concentration of blood cells?

Decrease production 

Increase destruction 

Blood loss 

Altered distribution 

Consumption 

10

What are the possible reasons for increase in the concentration of blood cells?

Increase in production 

Paraneoplastic syndromes 

Neoplasia

11

Term: Anemia

Subnormal RBC mass 

-- or -- 

Hemoglobin concentration 

12

What are the clinical signs of anemia?

Pallor of mucous membrans 

Lethargy, weakness

Elevated liver enzymes

Heart murmur

13

Why is there elevated liver enzymes with anemia?

Hypoia-induced damage to hepatocytes 

 

14

Why do you hear heart murmurs with anemia?

Blood thinning 

15

What can cause regenerative anemia?

hemorrhage 

-- or -- 

Hemolysis

16

What is seen on blood work if there is a strong regerneative response?

Increase MCV 

Decrease MCHC 

17

What is the hallmark of regenerative anemia?

reticulocytosis 

 

18

What does reticulocytosis indicate?

Increase bone marrow erythropoiesis 

19

How do horses present with regenerative anemia?

Increase MCV 

 

20

How are reticulocytes distinguided?

Polychormasia 

21

What two things are needed to determine regenerative anemia is occurring in horses?

Bone marrow examination 

-- and -- 

Sequential CBC

 

22

What is the hallmark of regenerative anemia in a horse's bone marrow?

Erythroid hyperplasia 

23

What is a classic sequlae of hemolytic anemia?

Hypernilirubinemia 

24

What is seen clinically with hyperbilirubinemia?

Icterus 

 

25

What are the two types of hemolytic anemias?

Extravascular 

-- and -- 

Intravascular 

26

What does extravascular hemolytic anemia result in? Why?

Splenomegaly 

Increase destruction of RBC's by splenic macrophages 

27

What does intravascular hemoysis result in?

Hemoglobinemia 

28

What causes hemoglobinuria? What does it lead to?

Free HgB pass through renal glomeruli into urine 

Can lead to renal tubular necrosis 

29

What are two other differietials for hemoglobinuria?

Hematuria 

-- or -- 

Myoglobinuria 

30

What is seen in the blood of a patient with IMHA?

Spherocytosis 

-- and -- 

Autoaggluintation 

31

What bacteria can cause spelnomegaly in a pig, caused by hemolytic anemia?

Mycoplasma suis 

32

What feature is seen histologically of spherocytes?

Howell-Joly bodies 

33

How does oxidative damage occur to erythrocytes?

Normal antioxidant pathways that make NADH + NADPH are compromised/overwhelmed 

34

What evidence of oxidative damage on a blood smear?

Heinz bodies 

35

Term: Heinz Bodies 

Foci of denatured globin that interact with erthrocyte membrane 

36

What can oxidative insult cause to the hemoglobin?

HgB can convert to methemoglobin which are inable to bind to oxygen 

Blood becomes chocolate colored

37

How is nonregenerative anemia characterized?

Lack of reticulocytosis on CBC 

38

What is the most common form of nonregenerative anemia?

Anemia of inflammation or Anemia of chronic disease 

39

Why does anemia of chornic disease tend to cause nonregenerative anemia?

Increased iron stores in bone marrow 

40

Term: Hepcidin

Acute phase protein 

Limit iron avalibility 

41

What happens to levels of hepcidin when there is inflammation?

Increases 

42

What is the end result of increased hepcidin? 

Functional iron deficiency by:

inhibiting absorption of dietary iron in GI 

Blocking export of iron from marcophages/hepatocytes

43

What is true iron defiency most commonly caused by?

Chronic blood loss 

sometimes nutritional deficiency 

44

What is the hematologic appearance of iron deficiency?

Microcytic 

Hypochromic 

Low MVC + MCHC 

45

What are the four major reasons for neutropenia?

Decreased production 

Increased destruction 

Increased demand 

Altered distribution 

46

What can cause neuropenia due to increased demand?

Margination between inflammatory stimulus + reserve of postmitotic neutrophils in bone marrow 

47

What can cause neuropenia due to increased destruction?

Occurs before they leave the bone marrow 

Immune mediated

48

What is the increased destruction of neutrophils knowns as?

Granulopoiesis

49

What can cause neuropenia due to decreased production?

Chemical 

Radiation 

Neoplaisa 

infection

50

If eosinopenia/basopenia is detectable what is it suspected to be a part of?

Stress leukogram 

Mediated by glucocorticoids 

51

What can cause thrombocytopenia due to increased destruction?

Immune mediated thrombocytopenia 

52

What can cause thrombocytopenia due to increase consumption?

Hallmark of DIC 

53

 Term: Erythrocytosis 

Increase in RBC mass 

54

What causes primary erythrocytosis?

Dehydration 

-- and -- 

Epinephrine mediated splenic contraction 

55

What are the causes of secondary erythrocytosis?

true EPO-mediated increase in RBC mass 

 

56

What are the five mechanisms for neutrophilia?

Increase release if marrow storage pool cells 

Demargination of neutrophils 

Decreased extravasation into tissue 

Expansion of marrow precursor pool 

Congenital 

57

What might cause increased release of marrow storage pool cells?

Endotoxemia 

Acute infection 

Hypoxia 

Glucocorticosteroids 

58

What can cause demargination of neutrophils?

Acute infection 

Excercise 

EPI release 

Glucocorticosteroids 

59

What could be the cause of expansion of marrow precursor pool?

Chronic infection 

Tumors 

Rebound from neutropenia 

Myeloproliferative disorders 

60

What is a congenital cause of neutrophilia? 

Leukocyte adhesion defiency 

61

When is lymphocytosis normal?

Young animals 

62

What can cause lymphocytosis in cats? What does it occur with?

Epinephrine mediated physiological leukocytosis 

Marked with neutrophilia 

63

What virus can cause lymphocytosis in cattle?

BLV 

64

What condition is caused by BLV that leads to lymphocytosis in cattle?

Persistent leukocytosis 

 

65

What defines an animal with persistent leukocytosis?

Lymphocytosis for at least 3 months 

Non-neoplastic proliferation of B-lymphocytes 

66

Term: Anaplastic anemia 

Severe hypoplasia of all hematopoietic lineages in bone marrow 

67

What is another name for anaplastic anaemia?

Aplastic pancytopenia 

68

What is the cause of anaplastic anemia?

Destruction of hematopoietic stem cells caused by 

Chemical agents 

Infectious agents 

Idiopathic 

69

What infectious agents in dogs and cats cause anaplastic anemia?

Erlichiosis 

-- and -- 

Parvovirus 

70

What infectious agents cause anaplastic anemia in cats?

FeLV 

-- and -- 

FIV 

71

What infectious agents cause anaplastic anemia in horses?

Equine infectious anemia 

72

Term: Erythropoietic porphyrias

Defect of enzymes in synthesis of porphyrins and other heme proteins 

 

73

What is prphyrins?

Precursors of HgB 

74

What are three common types of erythropoietic porphyrias?

Congentical erythropoietic porphria 

Bovine erythropoietic protoporphyria 

Congenital prophyria of Siamese and DSH cats

75

What animals are at risk for getting congenital erythropoietic porphyria?

Holstein cattle 

-- and -- 

Shorthorn cattle 

76

What are the characteristics of congenital erythropoietic porphyria?

Red-brown discoloration of teeth + bones + urine 

Photodynamic porphyrins in circulation 

Anemia 

 

77

What animals tend to be at risk for Bovine erythropoietic protoporphyria?

Limousin cattle 

78

What are the characteristics of bovine erthropietic protoporphyria? 

No discoloration of teeth or bones 

Accumulation of protoporphyrins in tissues + erytrocytes 

Photosensitivity only clinical manifestation 

79

What is causing bovine erythropoietic protoporphyria?

Inherited disorder of heme synthase 

Accumulation of prorotporphrins in tissues and erythrocutes 

80

How is pyruvate kinase deficiency characterized?

Moderate to severe extravascular hemolytic anemia 

Strongly regenerative 

81

What is the genetic characteristic of pyruvate kinase deficiency?

Inherited autosomal recessive

Dogs + cats

82

What is seen clinically with Chediak-Higashi syndrome?

Pyogenic infections

Bleeding tendencies 

Ocular/cutaneous hypopigmentation 

83

What causes chediak-higashi syndrome to occur?

Mutation in the gene for LYST 

Causes severely impaired cellular innate immunity due to neutropenia 

impaired chemotaxis

respiratory burst 

84

What causes Glazmann thrombasthenia?

Defective expression of integrin GPIIb-IIIa 

Fibrin receptor for normal platelet aggregation 

 

85

What is clinically seen with glazmann thrombasthenia?

Severely impaired clot retraction 

86

What breeds of dogs are found to have Glazmann thrombasthenia?

Great pyrenees 

-- and -- 

Otterhound dogs

87

What are the oxidative agents that cause toxicoses in horses?

Red maple 

Phenotiazine 

Onions/garlic

88

What are the oxidative agents that cause toxicoses in ruminants?

Brassica/Rye grass

Copper toxicity 

Onions/Garlic 

89

What are the oxidative agents that cause toxicoses in Dogs?

Acetaminophen 

Naphthalene 

Benzocaine 

Phenylhydrazine 

Vitamin K1 and K3 

Zinc toxicity

90

What are the oxidative agents that cause toxicoses in Cats?

Acetaminophen 

Benzocaine 

Methionine 

Napthalene 

Propofol 

Propylen glycol 

91

What are the post mortem findings in animals with toxicoses due to oxidative agents?

Icterus 

Hemoglobinuric nephrosis 

Brown discoloration of liver/kidney 

Splenomegaly 

92

Describe the organism that causes babesiosis?

Babesia spp. 

Intraerythrocytic protozoal organism 

93

How is babesiosis transmitted?

Arthropods 

94

What are the four species affected by babesiosis?

Horses

Cattle 

Dogs 

Cats

95

Babesia spp. : Horse

Equi 

Caballi 

96

Babesia spp. : Cattle

Bovis 

Bigemina

97

Babesia spp. :  Dogs

Canis

98

Babesia spp. : Cats

Cati 

Herpailuri 

Pantherae

99

What is the mechanism of hemolysis in an animal infected with babesiosis?

direct damage of the membranes due to: 

Protozoal proteases

Oxidative damage 

Immune mediated destruction 

100

What is seen in a necropsy of an animal that died from babesiosis?

Splenomegaly 

Icterus 

Hemoglobinuria 

Swollen, HgB stained kidneys 

101

What is seen upon histological examination of blood from a babesiosis infected animal?

Parasitized erythrocytes 

Kidney + Brain + Skeletal muscle 

102

What is the organism responsible for the transmission of theileriosis?

Ticks 

103

What animals are infected by therileria spp. 

Cattle 

104

What species of Theileria affect cattle?

Parva 

Annulata 

Buffeli 

105

What is the mechanism by which Theileria causes anemia in infected cattle?

Splenic hemosiderosis 

Edema of lymph nodes/subcutis 

Thoracic + Peritoneal effusions 

106

What are the histological features of theileriosis?

Schizonts - interlymphocytic 

Merozoites/trophozoites - Intraerthrocytic 

107

What are the vectors for Trypanosomiasis?

Arthropods 

108

What animals are infected by typanosomiasis?

Horses 

Cattle 

Pigs 

109

Trypanosoma spp. : Horse

Brucei

Evansi 

110

Trypanosoma spp. : Cattle

Congolense

Vivax

111

Trypanosoma spp. : Pigs

Simiae

112

What is the mechanism that Trypanosoma causes hemolysis?

Immune-mediated 

113

What is found in a necropsy of an animal infected with trypanosomiasis?

Cachexia 

Generalized edema with increased fluid in body cavities 

Generalized lymphadenomegaly

Splenomegaly 

114

What is the vector for anaplasma?

Arthropods 

Contaminated needles

115

What is the vector for Ehrlichia?

Tick 

116

What animals are infected by anaplasma?

Cattle

Sheep/goat

117

Anaplasma spp. : Cattle

Centrale 

Marginale

118

Anaplasma spp. : Sheep/Goat

Ovis 

119

What animals are infected by ehrlichia?

Horses 

Dogs 

120

Ehrlichia: Horses

Phagocytophilum 

Risticii

121

Ehrlichia: Dogs

Canis 

Phagocytophilum

122

What is the mechanism by which anaplasma is able to cause hemolysis?

Immune-mediated extravascular hemolysis

123

What is the mechanism by which ehrlichia causes hemolysis?

Infects granulocytes 

Monocytes - dogs/horses

Enterocytes - horses

124

What is seen in a necropse of an animal that died of ehrlichosis or anaplasmosis?

Pallor 

Petechia/Ecchymoses 

Splenomegaly 

Lymphadenomegaly 

125

What organs should a cytology be taken from when anaplasmosis or ehrlichiosis is in question?

Liver 

Lung 

Spleen 

LN 

126

What animals are infected by clostridial diseases?

Cattle 

Lambs

127

Clostridial spp.: Cattle

Hemolyticum 

Novyi Type D 

128

Clostridial spp.: Lambs/calves

perfringens type A 

129

What causes bacillary hemogloburia?

Hemolyticum 

Novyi type D 

130

What causes yellow lamb disease?

Perfringens type A 

131

What is the mechanism for hemolysis in yellow lamb disease?

Bacteria is normally found in GI 

Some diets might cause abnormal proliferation within the GI tract 

132

What is the mechanism for hemolysis in bacillary hemoglobinuria?

Spores found in kupffer cells 

Flukes migrate liver parenchyma 

Leads to necrosis + anaerobis conditions 

Spores activated and toxins degrade cell membranes

133

What bacterial toxins degrade the cell membranes in bacillary hemoglobinuria?

Phospholipase 

Lecithinases 

134

What is found in necropsy of an animal who died of clostridium?

Icterus 

Hemoglobinuria

Hemoglobinuric nephrosis 

135

What is the mechanism of anemia caused by mycoplasma?

Extravascualr hemolysis

136

What is found upon necropsy of an animal who has died of hemotropic mycoplasmosis?

Pallor 

Icterus 

Splenomegaly

137

What is seen in the cytology from an animal infected with hemotropic mycoplasmosis?

Short, branching chains 

Found in extracellular spaces 

Attache to the surface of the RBC's

138

How is IMHA described?

Increased destruction of erythrocytes due to binding of immunoglobulines to cell surface antigens 

139

What is the reactive antibody in IMHA?

IgG

140

What is the target of IMHA?

Mature erthrocytes 

will have a marked regenerative response

141

What are common clinical findings of IMHA?

Hyperbilirubinemia 

Splenomegaly 

Pyrexia 

Inflammatory neutrophilia 

142

What is found post mortem in animals that have died of IMHA?

Ischemic necrosis of; 

Liver 

Kidney 

Lung 

heart 

Spleen 

143

Describe: Neonatal isoerthrolysis 

New born has colostrum-derived maternal antibodies 

React against owh erythrocytes 

144

What species is most commonly affected by NI?

Horses 

 

but seen in cattle and cats

145

What are the clinical signs in a foal suffering from NI?

Become weak 8 to 10 hours after brith 

Pale to icteric mucous membranes 

Hemobloginuria 

146

Descirbe: Pure Red Cell Aplasia 

Rare bone marrow disorder 

Absense of erthropoiesis 

Severe nonregenerative anemia 

147

What causes primary PRCA?

Immune mediated destruction of erythroid progenitor cells 

148

What causes secondary PRCA in cats?

FeLV 

149

What causes secondary PRCA in dogs?

Parvoviral infections 

150

What are the classes of hematopoietic neoplasias?

Lymphoproliferative 

Myeloproliferative

151

What are the lymphoproliferative neoplasia?

Lymphoma/Lymphosarcoma 

Lymphoid leukemia 

Plasma cell tumors

152

What are the myeloproliderative neoplasitic disorders?

Myeloid leukemia 

Myelodysplastic syndrome 

Histiocytic neoplasia 

Mast cell tumors 

153

What are the techiques for diagnosing neoplastic disorders?

Immunophenotyping 

Clonality assay 

154

What is a clonality assay?

PCR test 

ID's neoplastic lymphoid proliferations 

155

Immunophenotyping: Histological sections 

Immunohistochemistry 

156

Immunophenotyping: Cytologic

Immunocytochemistry 

157

What is immunophenotyping?

The use of antibodies recognizing specific molecules expressed on different cell types to ID cell populations 

158

Describe: Leukemia

Malignant hematopoietic neoplasms 

Originate in bone marrow 

 

159

What are the classifications for leukemias?

Lymphocytic or Myeloid 

Acute or Chronic 

160

What determines acute or chronic leukemia?

Degree of cell differentiation 

and 

Biological behavior

161

What are then four major types of leukemia?

CLL 

CML 

ALL 

AML 

 

162

Term: CLL 

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia 

Middle age to older dogs 

T-lymphocytes

163

Term: CML 

Chronic myeloid leukemia 

Dogs and Cats 

Chronic granulocytic leukemia of: 

neutrophils 

eosinophils 

basophils 

164

Term: ALL 

Acute lymphocytic leukemia 

Horses + Cattle

165

Describe: AML 

Acute myeloid leukemia 

Dogs + Cats

166

What can myelodyspalstic syndrome transform into?

AML 

167

What is myelodysplastic syndrome?

Ineffective hematopoiesis 

168

What is needed to diagnose myelodysplastic syndrome?

less than 30% blasts in the marrow

cytopenias of more that one cell linage 

Morphological evidence of dyshematopoiesis 

169

Describe: Lymphoma

neoplasia arising from lymphoid tissue outside of the bone marrow 

170

What clinical finiding is commonly seen with lymphoma?

Orangomegaly 

 

171

What is immunophenotyping used for in lymphoma?

If it is B or T cell in origin 

Distinguish lymphoma from lymphoid leukemia 

172

What marker is used to see acute leukemias?

CD34 

173

What hematological findings are seen with lymphoma?

Nonregenerative anemia 

Hypercalcemia

174

Why is hypercalcemia sometimes seen with lymphoma?

Production of parathyroid hormone related protein by neoplastic cells 

175

What are the necropsy findings in an animal that died from lymphoma in the case of multicentric?

Enlarged LN with buldge on cut surface 

White-gray discoloration

176

What are the necropsy findings in an animal that died from lymphoma in the case of alimentary?

GI tract by be thickened to nodular 

Enlarged mesenteric LN

177

What are the necropsy findings in an animal that died from lymphoma in the case of thymic?

Enlarged, white to gray and nodular masses 

Cranial mediastinum 

178

What are the necropsy findings in an animal that died from lymphoma in the case of renal?

Bilateral enlargement and pallor 

179

What are the two forms of plasma cells neoplasia? 

Multiple myeloma 

Plasmocytoma 

180

What are the characteristics of plasmocytoma?

Cuteanous or mucous membrane solid tumors 

Single or multiple 

Usually benign 

181

What kind of plasmocytoma is malignant?

Extramedullary plasmocytoma (EMP) 

182

Where is EMP found most commonly?

GI

183

What is associated with EMP?

Monocolonal gammopathy 

Amyloidosis 

184

Describe: Multiple myeloma 

Arises from bone marrous 

Secretes larges amounts of Ig 

No blood involvement 

185

What is the hallmark of Multiple myeloma?

Hyperglobulinemia 

186

What is needed to make the diagnosis of multiple myeloma?

Increase in plasma cells in bone marrow 

monoclonal gammopathy demonstrated by serum protein 

Osteolysis 

Light chain proteinuria 

187

What pathological findings are seen with MM?

Hypercalcemia 

Cytopenias

188

Where does multiple myeloma tend to metastasize?

Spleen 

Liver 

Lymph node 

Kidneys 

189

What is seen upon histological examination of MM?

Pink tinged cytoplasm 

Due to high concentration of immunoglobulin 

190

What is seen upon histological examination of plasmacytoma?

Well differentiated plasma cells 

Small clusters serperated by a fibrovascular stroma 

191

What is the origin of histiocytic neoplasia?

Macrophage 

Dendritic cells

192

What breeds are predisposed to histiocytic sarcoma?

Rottweiler 

Bernese Mountain 

193

What is seen upon histological examination of histiocytic neoplasia?

Large, roung to spindle shaped cells 

Well differentiated histocytic morphology

194

What are the two types of histocytic sarcomas?

Solitary 

Diffuse

195

Describe: Solitary histiocytic sarcoma

Solid/single masses 

Spleen 

Lung 

LN 

Bone Marrow 

Skin 

SQ 

Joints 

Brain

196

Describe: Diffuse histiiocytic sarcoma 

Rapid/Aggressive clinical course 

Spleen 

Lung 

LN 

Bone Marrow 

Skin 
SQ

197

What is the source of cutaneous histiocytoma?

Benign neoplasm of epidermal Langerhans cells 

regress on its own 

Appears in young dogs 

198

What is the histiocytic sarcoma histological morphology?

Gray cytoplasm 

199

Describe: Bloody spleen

Uniform splenomegaly with blood consistency 

200

Describe: Meaty spleen

Uniform splenomegaly with firm consistency 

201

What normally causes meaty spleen?

Proliferation of cells (most commonly macrophages) 

and increased phagocytosis in: 

Septicemia 

Bacteremia 

Hemolytic disease 

202