What are the two major defense mechanisms within the erythrocytes?
Glycolytic pathway + Pentose shunt pathway
What does the glycolytic pathway do?
Produce NADH - helps in the conversion of methemoglobin to hemoglobin
What does the pentose pathway do?
Produce NADPH - maintains glutathione in the reduced state
What are the eight responses to injury that bone marrow can undergo?
Hyper/hypoplasia + Dysplasia + Myelopthisis + Aplasia + Neoplasia + Myelofibrosis + Inflammation/Necrosis
What are the causes of hyperplasia in bone marrow?
Response to stimulus
Secondary phenomenon to a stimulus
Term: Hypoplasia of bone marrow
Decrease in bone marrow hematopoietic tissue
Term: Dysplasia of Bone Marrow
Abnormally large size of hemopoietic tissue
Replacement of mematopoietic tissue in bone marrow by another tissue
What are the possible causes of decrease in the concentration of blood cells?
What are the possible reasons for increase in the concentration of blood cells?
Increase in production
Subnormal RBC mass
-- or --
What are the clinical signs of anemia?
Pallor of mucous membrans
Elevated liver enzymes
Why is there elevated liver enzymes with anemia?
Hypoia-induced damage to hepatocytes
Why do you hear heart murmurs with anemia?
What can cause regenerative anemia?
-- or --
What is seen on blood work if there is a strong regerneative response?
What is the hallmark of regenerative anemia?
What does reticulocytosis indicate?
Increase bone marrow erythropoiesis
How do horses present with regenerative anemia?
How are reticulocytes distinguided?
What two things are needed to determine regenerative anemia is occurring in horses?
Bone marrow examination
-- and --
What is the hallmark of regenerative anemia in a horse's bone marrow?
What is a classic sequlae of hemolytic anemia?
What is seen clinically with hyperbilirubinemia?
What are the two types of hemolytic anemias?
-- and --
What does extravascular hemolytic anemia result in? Why?
Increase destruction of RBC's by splenic macrophages
What does intravascular hemoysis result in?
What causes hemoglobinuria? What does it lead to?
Free HgB pass through renal glomeruli into urine
Can lead to renal tubular necrosis
What are two other differietials for hemoglobinuria?
-- or --
What is seen in the blood of a patient with IMHA?
-- and --
What bacteria can cause spelnomegaly in a pig, caused by hemolytic anemia?
What feature is seen histologically of spherocytes?
How does oxidative damage occur to erythrocytes?
Normal antioxidant pathways that make NADH + NADPH are compromised/overwhelmed
What evidence of oxidative damage on a blood smear?
Term: Heinz Bodies
Foci of denatured globin that interact with erthrocyte membrane
What can oxidative insult cause to the hemoglobin?
HgB can convert to methemoglobin which are inable to bind to oxygen
Blood becomes chocolate colored
How is nonregenerative anemia characterized?
Lack of reticulocytosis on CBC
What is the most common form of nonregenerative anemia?
Anemia of inflammation or Anemia of chronic disease
Why does anemia of chornic disease tend to cause nonregenerative anemia?
Increased iron stores in bone marrow
Acute phase protein
Limit iron avalibility
What happens to levels of hepcidin when there is inflammation?
What is the end result of increased hepcidin?
Functional iron deficiency by:
inhibiting absorption of dietary iron in GI
Blocking export of iron from marcophages/hepatocytes
What is true iron defiency most commonly caused by?
Chronic blood loss
sometimes nutritional deficiency
What is the hematologic appearance of iron deficiency?
Low MVC + MCHC
What are the four major reasons for neutropenia?
What can cause neuropenia due to increased demand?
Margination between inflammatory stimulus + reserve of postmitotic neutrophils in bone marrow
What can cause neuropenia due to increased destruction?
Occurs before they leave the bone marrow
What is the increased destruction of neutrophils knowns as?
What can cause neuropenia due to decreased production?
If eosinopenia/basopenia is detectable what is it suspected to be a part of?
Mediated by glucocorticoids
What can cause thrombocytopenia due to increased destruction?
Immune mediated thrombocytopenia
What can cause thrombocytopenia due to increase consumption?
Hallmark of DIC
Increase in RBC mass
What causes primary erythrocytosis?
-- and --
Epinephrine mediated splenic contraction
What are the causes of secondary erythrocytosis?
true EPO-mediated increase in RBC mass
What are the five mechanisms for neutrophilia?
Increase release if marrow storage pool cells
Demargination of neutrophils
Decreased extravasation into tissue
Expansion of marrow precursor pool
What might cause increased release of marrow storage pool cells?
What can cause demargination of neutrophils?
What could be the cause of expansion of marrow precursor pool?
Rebound from neutropenia
What is a congenital cause of neutrophilia?
Leukocyte adhesion defiency
When is lymphocytosis normal?
What can cause lymphocytosis in cats? What does it occur with?
Epinephrine mediated physiological leukocytosis
Marked with neutrophilia
What virus can cause lymphocytosis in cattle?
What condition is caused by BLV that leads to lymphocytosis in cattle?
What defines an animal with persistent leukocytosis?
Lymphocytosis for at least 3 months
Non-neoplastic proliferation of B-lymphocytes
Term: Anaplastic anemia
Severe hypoplasia of all hematopoietic lineages in bone marrow
What is another name for anaplastic anaemia?
What is the cause of anaplastic anemia?
Destruction of hematopoietic stem cells caused by
What infectious agents in dogs and cats cause anaplastic anemia?
-- and --
What infectious agents cause anaplastic anemia in cats?
-- and --
What infectious agents cause anaplastic anemia in horses?
Equine infectious anemia
Term: Erythropoietic porphyrias
Defect of enzymes in synthesis of porphyrins and other heme proteins
What is prphyrins?
Precursors of HgB
What are three common types of erythropoietic porphyrias?
Congentical erythropoietic porphria
Bovine erythropoietic protoporphyria
Congenital prophyria of Siamese and DSH cats
What animals are at risk for getting congenital erythropoietic porphyria?
-- and --
What are the characteristics of congenital erythropoietic porphyria?
Red-brown discoloration of teeth + bones + urine
Photodynamic porphyrins in circulation
What animals tend to be at risk for Bovine erythropoietic protoporphyria?
What are the characteristics of bovine erthropietic protoporphyria?
No discoloration of teeth or bones
Accumulation of protoporphyrins in tissues + erytrocytes
Photosensitivity only clinical manifestation
What is causing bovine erythropoietic protoporphyria?
Inherited disorder of heme synthase
Accumulation of prorotporphrins in tissues and erythrocutes
How is pyruvate kinase deficiency characterized?
Moderate to severe extravascular hemolytic anemia
What is the genetic characteristic of pyruvate kinase deficiency?
Inherited autosomal recessive
Dogs + cats
What is seen clinically with Chediak-Higashi syndrome?
What causes chediak-higashi syndrome to occur?
Mutation in the gene for LYST
Causes severely impaired cellular innate immunity due to neutropenia
What causes Glazmann thrombasthenia?
Defective expression of integrin GPIIb-IIIa
Fibrin receptor for normal platelet aggregation
What is clinically seen with glazmann thrombasthenia?
Severely impaired clot retraction
What breeds of dogs are found to have Glazmann thrombasthenia?
-- and --
What are the oxidative agents that cause toxicoses in horses?
What are the oxidative agents that cause toxicoses in ruminants?
What are the oxidative agents that cause toxicoses in Dogs?
Vitamin K1 and K3
What are the oxidative agents that cause toxicoses in Cats?
What are the post mortem findings in animals with toxicoses due to oxidative agents?
Brown discoloration of liver/kidney
Describe the organism that causes babesiosis?
Intraerythrocytic protozoal organism
How is babesiosis transmitted?
What are the four species affected by babesiosis?
Babesia spp. : Horse
Babesia spp. : Cattle
Babesia spp. : Dogs
Babesia spp. : Cats
What is the mechanism of hemolysis in an animal infected with babesiosis?
direct damage of the membranes due to:
Immune mediated destruction
What is seen in a necropsy of an animal that died from babesiosis?
Swollen, HgB stained kidneys
What is seen upon histological examination of blood from a babesiosis infected animal?
Kidney + Brain + Skeletal muscle
What is the organism responsible for the transmission of theileriosis?
What animals are infected by therileria spp.
What species of Theileria affect cattle?
What is the mechanism by which Theileria causes anemia in infected cattle?
Edema of lymph nodes/subcutis
Thoracic + Peritoneal effusions
What are the histological features of theileriosis?
Schizonts - interlymphocytic
Merozoites/trophozoites - Intraerthrocytic
What are the vectors for Trypanosomiasis?
What animals are infected by typanosomiasis?
Trypanosoma spp. : Horse
Trypanosoma spp. : Cattle
Trypanosoma spp. : Pigs
What is the mechanism that Trypanosoma causes hemolysis?
What is found in a necropsy of an animal infected with trypanosomiasis?
Generalized edema with increased fluid in body cavities
What is the vector for anaplasma?
What is the vector for Ehrlichia?
What animals are infected by anaplasma?
Anaplasma spp. : Cattle
Anaplasma spp. : Sheep/Goat
What animals are infected by ehrlichia?
What is the mechanism by which anaplasma is able to cause hemolysis?
Immune-mediated extravascular hemolysis
What is the mechanism by which ehrlichia causes hemolysis?
Monocytes - dogs/horses
Enterocytes - horses
What is seen in a necropse of an animal that died of ehrlichosis or anaplasmosis?
What organs should a cytology be taken from when anaplasmosis or ehrlichiosis is in question?
What animals are infected by clostridial diseases?
Clostridial spp.: Cattle
Novyi Type D
Clostridial spp.: Lambs/calves
perfringens type A
What causes bacillary hemogloburia?
Novyi type D
What causes yellow lamb disease?
Perfringens type A
What is the mechanism for hemolysis in yellow lamb disease?
Bacteria is normally found in GI
Some diets might cause abnormal proliferation within the GI tract
What is the mechanism for hemolysis in bacillary hemoglobinuria?
Spores found in kupffer cells
Flukes migrate liver parenchyma
Leads to necrosis + anaerobis conditions
Spores activated and toxins degrade cell membranes
What bacterial toxins degrade the cell membranes in bacillary hemoglobinuria?
What is found in necropsy of an animal who died of clostridium?
What is the mechanism of anemia caused by mycoplasma?
What is found upon necropsy of an animal who has died of hemotropic mycoplasmosis?
What is seen in the cytology from an animal infected with hemotropic mycoplasmosis?
Short, branching chains
Found in extracellular spaces
Attache to the surface of the RBC's
How is IMHA described?
Increased destruction of erythrocytes due to binding of immunoglobulines to cell surface antigens
What is the reactive antibody in IMHA?
What is the target of IMHA?
will have a marked regenerative response
What are common clinical findings of IMHA?
What is found post mortem in animals that have died of IMHA?
Ischemic necrosis of;
Describe: Neonatal isoerthrolysis
New born has colostrum-derived maternal antibodies
React against owh erythrocytes
What species is most commonly affected by NI?
but seen in cattle and cats
What are the clinical signs in a foal suffering from NI?
Become weak 8 to 10 hours after brith
Pale to icteric mucous membranes
Descirbe: Pure Red Cell Aplasia
Rare bone marrow disorder
Absense of erthropoiesis
Severe nonregenerative anemia
What causes primary PRCA?
Immune mediated destruction of erythroid progenitor cells
What causes secondary PRCA in cats?
What causes secondary PRCA in dogs?
What are the classes of hematopoietic neoplasias?
What are the lymphoproliferative neoplasia?
Plasma cell tumors
What are the myeloproliderative neoplasitic disorders?
Mast cell tumors
What are the techiques for diagnosing neoplastic disorders?
What is a clonality assay?
ID's neoplastic lymphoid proliferations
Immunophenotyping: Histological sections
What is immunophenotyping?
The use of antibodies recognizing specific molecules expressed on different cell types to ID cell populations
Malignant hematopoietic neoplasms
Originate in bone marrow
What are the classifications for leukemias?
Lymphocytic or Myeloid
Acute or Chronic
What determines acute or chronic leukemia?
Degree of cell differentiation
What are then four major types of leukemia?
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Middle age to older dogs
Chronic myeloid leukemia
Dogs and Cats
Chronic granulocytic leukemia of:
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
Horses + Cattle
Acute myeloid leukemia
Dogs + Cats
What can myelodyspalstic syndrome transform into?
What is myelodysplastic syndrome?
What is needed to diagnose myelodysplastic syndrome?
less than 30% blasts in the marrow
cytopenias of more that one cell linage
Morphological evidence of dyshematopoiesis
neoplasia arising from lymphoid tissue outside of the bone marrow
What clinical finiding is commonly seen with lymphoma?
What is immunophenotyping used for in lymphoma?
If it is B or T cell in origin
Distinguish lymphoma from lymphoid leukemia
What marker is used to see acute leukemias?
What hematological findings are seen with lymphoma?
Why is hypercalcemia sometimes seen with lymphoma?
Production of parathyroid hormone related protein by neoplastic cells
What are the necropsy findings in an animal that died from lymphoma in the case of multicentric?
Enlarged LN with buldge on cut surface
What are the necropsy findings in an animal that died from lymphoma in the case of alimentary?
GI tract by be thickened to nodular
Enlarged mesenteric LN
What are the necropsy findings in an animal that died from lymphoma in the case of thymic?
Enlarged, white to gray and nodular masses
What are the necropsy findings in an animal that died from lymphoma in the case of renal?
Bilateral enlargement and pallor
What are the two forms of plasma cells neoplasia?
What are the characteristics of plasmocytoma?
Cuteanous or mucous membrane solid tumors
Single or multiple
What kind of plasmocytoma is malignant?
Extramedullary plasmocytoma (EMP)
Where is EMP found most commonly?
What is associated with EMP?
Describe: Multiple myeloma
Arises from bone marrous
Secretes larges amounts of Ig
No blood involvement
What is the hallmark of Multiple myeloma?
What is needed to make the diagnosis of multiple myeloma?
Increase in plasma cells in bone marrow
monoclonal gammopathy demonstrated by serum protein
Light chain proteinuria
What pathological findings are seen with MM?
Where does multiple myeloma tend to metastasize?
What is seen upon histological examination of MM?
Pink tinged cytoplasm
Due to high concentration of immunoglobulin
What is seen upon histological examination of plasmacytoma?
Well differentiated plasma cells
Small clusters serperated by a fibrovascular stroma
What is the origin of histiocytic neoplasia?
What breeds are predisposed to histiocytic sarcoma?
What is seen upon histological examination of histiocytic neoplasia?
Large, roung to spindle shaped cells
Well differentiated histocytic morphology
What are the two types of histocytic sarcomas?
Describe: Solitary histiocytic sarcoma
Describe: Diffuse histiiocytic sarcoma
Rapid/Aggressive clinical course
What is the source of cutaneous histiocytoma?
Benign neoplasm of epidermal Langerhans cells
regress on its own
Appears in young dogs
What is the histiocytic sarcoma histological morphology?
Describe: Bloody spleen
Uniform splenomegaly with blood consistency
Describe: Meaty spleen
Uniform splenomegaly with firm consistency
What normally causes meaty spleen?
Proliferation of cells (most commonly macrophages)
and increased phagocytosis in: