LEC 9 - Ears Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LEC 9 - Ears Deck (107):
1

What are the commensal bacteria found in the external ear?

Bacillus 

Corynebacterium 

E. Coli 

Strep/Staph 

Malassezia 

2

What is the mucocillary apparatus?

Combination of goblet cells and ciliated columnar epithelail cells 

Found in middle ear 

3

What is the acoustic reflex?

Contraction of the tensor tympani + stepdius muscle in response loud/injurious noise 

4

Term: Auricular agenesis

Defect at embryological development 

No ears

5

What are two causes of atresia of external acoustic meatus?

Congenital 

-- or -- 

Trauma 

6

Term: Altricial 

Animals that are helpless at birth 

Puppies + Kittens 

7

Term: Precocial 

Active shortly after birth 

Meatus open at birth 

8

In what animals is auricular hypoplasia normal?

La Mancha goat breed 

-- and -- 

Scottish fold cats 

9

What are the primary causes of otitis externa?

Ectoparasites 

Keratinization defects 

Foreign bodies 

Hypersensitivity reactions 

Systemic immune mediated disorders 

10

What are the most common primary causes of otitis externa in dogs?

Atopic dermatitis 

Adverese food reactions 

Ectoparasites 

Foreign bodies 

11

What are the gross findings with otitis externa?

Exberant discharge 

Hemorrhage 

Skin that is red, warm, and edematous 

Hyperpigmentation in chronic cases 

12

What are the histological findings with otitis externa?

Edema 

Influx of inflammatory cells 

Hyperplasia of epidermia 

Hyperkeratosis/crusts +/- fibrosis 

13

What is the common cause of infarcation of the external ear in pigs?

Septicemic Salmonaellosis

14

What is the common cause of infarcation of the external ear in cats?

FIP

15

What is the common cause of infarcation of the external ear in dogs?

German Shephard 

w/ familial vasculopathy 

16

What types of toxins can lead to infarction of the outter ear?

Cause vasoconstriction + vascular compromise 

Ie. Alkaloids

17

What is the gross description for an aural hematoma?

Swollen 

Warm 

Hyperemic 

Heavy ears that tend to drop

18

What occurs with in frostbite along with the infarction?

Dry gangrene 

19

What is contained within an ear that has an aural hematoma?

Blood and fibrin 

Strands of eosinophilic fibrin strands 

20

What are the four main ear mite types?

Otodectes cyanotis 

Notoedres cati 

Raillietina ssp. 

Psoroptes cuniculi 

21

What animals does otodectes cyanotis tend to infect?

Wild cats 

Dogs

Occasionally ruminants 

22

What do otodectes cyantosis do?

Non-burrowing 

Feed on cermimen + keratin + lipids

23

What is grossly present with otodectes cyanotis? 

A lot of cerumen production 

Dark brown waxy material that obstructs ear canal 

Auricles can be alopecic + scratch wounds

24

What animal does notoedres cati tend to infect?

Cat 

but also dogs, foxes, and rabbits 

25

Where is Notoedres Cati resticted to on the body?

Head + Face + Neck + Shoulders

26

How does notoedres cati infect the host?

Burrows into the stratum corneum 

27

What is grossly apparent when notoedres is present?

Alopecic 

Thick crusting 

Excoriation of rostral pinna 

28

What animals does raillietina species tend to infect?

Cattle + Buffalo + Goats 

29

How do Raillietina tend to infect their host?

resides deep in external acoustic meatus 

Just next to tympanic membrane 

30

What is grossly seen with a raillietina ssp.? 

Thick plug of cerumen + debris 

31

Where does psoroptes cuniculi tend to live on the body?

Skin

32

What animals does Psoroptes Cuniculi tend to infecT?

Sheep 

Goat 

Deer 

Horses 

Donkeys 

Mules 

Antelopes 

33

What are the two important tick speices?

Rhipicephalus spp. 

-- and -- 

Gulf coast ear tick 

34

What breed of cattle does rhipicephalus tend to infect?

Bos tarus 

35

How does rhipicephalus cause there to be "cement" in the external auricle?

Secrete proteins in their saliva 

Reacts with host enzymes 

= hard feeding cone 

36

What animals does the gulf coast ear tick most commonly infest?

Cattle 

Sheep 

Horse 

 

37

What is the gulf coast tick a vector for?

Cowdria ruminatium 

38

What disease does Cowdria ruminatium cause?

Heartwater disease 

39

What is the causative agent for dermatophiosis? 

Dermatophilus congolensis 

40

What is important to remember when dealing with dermatophilus congolensis?

It is Zoonotic 

41

What parts of the body does dermatophilus congolensis infect?

Skin/Mucosa of the Nose 

Commissures of the Lips 

Distal/Proximal limbs/ears

42

How is dermatophilius conogolensis transmitted?

Dam to feeding offspring

43

How does colonization of dermatophilus occur?

Flagellated zoospores penetrate the epidermis 

Reach basement membrane 

Transform into filamentous morphology 

44

What causes the crusty appearance of an animal infected with dermatophilus congolensis? 

Cycle of bacterial growth + inflammation + epidermal regeneration 

= Multilaminated pustular crust 

45

What is the gross description of the lesion caused by dermatophilus congolensis?

Crusting + Exudative dermatitis 

46

What are the most common neoplasms in the ear of a dog?

Sebaceous gland tumor 

Histiocytomas 

Plasmacytomas 

Mast cell tumors 

47

What are the most common neoplasms of the cats ear?

Basal cell tumors 

Vascular tumors 

Squamous cell carcinomas 

48

What two common neoplasms of the ear are seen in both dogs and cats?

Ceruminous gland adenomas 

-- and -- 

Adenocarcinomas 

49

What is the appearance of adenomas in the ear?

multiple + small + pendunculated irregular firm masses 

 

50

What is the gross appearance of adenocarcinomas?

Locally invasice and expansile with tendency metastasize 

51

What animal are adenocarcinomas most commonly seen?

Old, male cats

52

Where do adenocarcinomas tend to metastizise to?

Regional lymph nodes

Lungs 

Systemic viscera 

53

What kind of disease is pinnal alopecia in cattle? What type of cattle?

Congenital disease 

Polled hereford breed

54

What type of disease is pinnal alopecia in cats/dogs? What breeds are affected?

Acquired

Dogs: Dachshunds 

Cats: Siamese 

55

What is the histological appearance of ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma? 

Haphazardly arranged + formed tubules/acini 

Evidence of anaplastic/mitotically active cells 

56

Who does primary ciliary dyskinesia tend to affect?

Dogs 

< 1 years of age 

57

What clincal symptoms are seen in dogs with primary ciliary dyskinesia? 

Persistant cough 

Nasal discharge 

With a history of recurrent respiratory disease 

58

What are the three possible reasons for primary ciliary dyskinesia to occur in dogs?

Dynein arm deficiency 

Abnormal microtubular patterns 

Random orientation of microtubules 

59

What is seen grossly with primary ciliary dyskinesia?

Mucopurulent exudate 

-- or -- 

Sterile gelatinous material 

Filling the tympanic cavity 

60

What are the causative agents for otitis media in pigs?

Pasturella multocida 

trueperella pyogenes 

Mycoplasma hyorhinis 

61

What are the causative agents in cows with otitis media?

Pasurella multocida 

trueperella pyogenes 

Mycoplasma bovis 

Histophilus somni 

Streptococcus 

62

What is otitis media commonly a result of?

Nasopharyngeal ascending infections

63

What is seen grossly in animals with otitis media?

Unilateral/bilateral 

Bulla filled with fibrinopurulent to caseous exudate 

64

What can be seen grossly in chronic cases of otitis media?

Mucosa becomes thickened 

Stenotic due to fibrosis 

65

What is the causative agents for otitis media in cats?

E. Coli 

Enterobacter/Enterococcus 

Strep/Staph 

Proteus 

Clostridium 

66

What is seen grossly in a cat with otitis media?

Bulla filled with fluid

67

What are the predisposing factors for cats to develope nasopharyngeal polyps?

Chronic infections

Otitis media 

Ascending middle ear infections 

Congenital defects 

68

What is the clinical presentation of a cat with a nasopharyngeal polyp?

Nasal, otic, or ocular discharge 

Sneezing 

Dyspnea 

Stridor

Voice change 

Head tilt 

69

What can be seen clinically with cats that have severe nasopharyngeal polyps? 

Cyanosis 

-- and -- 

Syncope

70

What is seen grossly in cats with nasopharyngeal polyps?

Pedunculated to polypoid growths 

Smooth surface 

Protrude through auditory tube into nasopharynx 

 

71

What type of mass is nasopharyngeal polyps?

Non-neoplastic 

Inflammatory

72

What is seen in histology of a nasopharyngeal polyp?

Fibrovascular core 

with: 

Lymphocytes 

Plasma cells 

Macrophages 

Covered by epithelium 

73

What can otitis interna result in?

meningitis 

Ventriculitis 

Encephalitis 

74

What causes vestibular disease?

Injury to any portion of the vestibular system 

75

What are the clincal signs of vestibular disease of the inner ear?

Head tilt 

Ataxia 

76

What are the two locations of vestibular disease?

Peripheral 

Central 

77

Where is the lesion in peripheral cases of vestibular disease?

internal ear receptors 

vestibular ganglia 

peripheral axons of VIII CN 

78

Where is the location of the lesion in central vestibular disease?

Vestibular nuclei of medulla 

Vestibular projection of the brain stem 

Cerebellum or spinal cord 

79

What are the four classifications of vestibular disease?

Congenital 

Concurrent otitis 

Idiopathic 

Aural/Intracranial neoplasias

80

Why is it hard to diagnose congenitcal VD?

No gross or histological lesions

81

What dog breeds tend to have congenital VD?

Dobermans 

German Shepards 

Cocker spaniels 

Beagles 

Akitas

82

What cat breeds tend to have congenital VD?

Siamese 

Tonkinese 

Burmese

83

What are the causes of concurrent otitis media/interna that lead to VD?

Canine distemper 

FIP 

Erlichiosis 

Toxoplasmosis 

Neoporosis 

Mycosis 

84

Whats the most common cause of idiopathic VD in dogs?

Age

85

Where do neoplasias tend to come from that cause VD? What are they?

Neurofibromas or Schwannomas 

From vestibulocochlear nerve

86

Term: Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy

Bony proliferative disease of temporohyoid articulation

87

What are two possible causes of temporohyoid osteoarthropathy?

Infectious agents 

-- or -- 

Premature DJD of the joint 

88

What animals tend to get aural plaques?

Horse 

> 1 year old 

89

What are aural plaques thought to be caused by?

Papilloma virus 

90

What is the gross appearance of aural plaques?

Raised

Well demarcated, hypopigmented, hyperkeratotic plaques 

91

What do biting flies tend to cause on the external aural?

Stephanofilaria otitis 

aka ear sore 

92

What do biting flies tend to spread that cause ear sores?

S. zaheeeri

93

What is the gross appearance of ear sores?

Congestion to hemorrhaging 

Severe crusting 

Chronic = Alopecia + depigmentation 

94

What type of ear related neoplasia do angora goats get?

Aural melanomas

95

What is thought to be the cause of aural melanomas?

UV light induction 

96

What is the gross appearance of aural melanoma?

Single or black nodules 

Superfical or Subcutaneous 

97

What causes aural chewing in pigs?

Intese confinement 

-- and -- 

Docking tails 

98

Where in the ear does cholestrol granulomas tend to occur in dogs?

Middle ear 

99

What are the predisposing factors that can cause cholesterol granulomas in dogs?

Hemorrhage 

Impaired auditory tube drainage 

Dimished/Obstructed ventilation of middle ear 

100

What is the gross appearance of cholesterol granulomas in dogs?

Benign 

Expansile masses with concurrent otitis 

101

Where is aural cholesteatoma found most in?

Middle ear 

Middle-aged to Old dogs

102

What are aural cholesteatoma?

Beign cysts which can be locally destructive 

103

What is most likely the cause of aural cholesteatoma?

Otitis externa/media 

Leading to negative pressure 

Leading to abnormalities in the tympanic membrane 

Forms a cysts lined by cornifying stratified squamous epithelium 

104

What is the gross appearance of proliferative, necrotizing otitis extrena in a cat?

Large, well demarcated erythematous plaques 

Appear on concave auricular surface

Covered by thick, tan/brown keratinous debris 

105

What are the histological features of proliferative, necrotizing otitis externa?

Superficial ecanthosis extending into follicles 

Neutrophilic luminal folliculitis 

Follicular hyperkeratosis 

Necrotic keratinocytes on hair follicles 

106

What are feline ceruminous cystomatosis?

benign, cystic, non-neoplastic proliferations of ceruminous glands on medial surface of auricle 

Extend into external acoustic meatus 

107

What is the gross appearance of feline ceruminous cystomatosis?

Glands are markedly dilated

Filled with brown, ceruminous secretions