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Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (78)
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1
Q

What are the motions of the hip

A

Medial and lateral rotation turn the foot in and out respectively, abduction/adduction move the leg from and to the midline, respectively, and flexion/extension moves the leg anteriorly and posteriorly, respectively

2
Q

What are the Latin names for the hip bone?

A

Os coxae and innominate bone

3
Q

What are the parts of the coxal bone

A

ilium, ischium, and pubis

4
Q

What is the acetabulum?

A

literally ‘vinegar cup’ it is the where the ilium. ischium, and pubis fuse

5
Q

What is the obturator foramen

A

Hole formed by the fusion of the ischium and pubis bone

6
Q

What is the pelvis

A

The pelvis is the bony ring made up of 2 os coxae and the sacrum

7
Q

What are the articulations in the pelvis

A

2 sacroiliac joints and the pubic symphysis

8
Q

What forms the sacroiliac joint

A

auricular surfaces of the ilium and sacrum for the synovial part of the joint, and the ventral and dorsal sacroiliac ligaments form the syndesmosis part

9
Q

What is a common pathology of the sacroiliac joint

A

It is not uncommon for the SI joint to undergo stenosis with age. There is back pain for 3 years, and then the body adjusts and it goes away

10
Q

What are the ventral and dorsal sacroiliac ligaments

A

Thickened regions of the SI joint capsule

11
Q

Where is the iliolumbar ligaments and what is its role

A

Spans from iliac crest to TVP of L5. It limits rotation and anterior gliding of L5 relative to the sacrum and limits side-bending of L5 in relation to the pelvis

12
Q

Where is the interosseus sacroiliac ligament

A

between the iliac tuberosity and sacrum (forms a syndesmosis)

13
Q

Where is the sacrospinous ligament

A

From the sacrum to the ischial spine to form the greater and lesser sciatic foramina

14
Q

What gives the sacrum stability

A

The downward compression of the sacrum from the weight of the upper body causes the interosseus ligaments to pull the ilium bones together thus tightening the iliosacral joint

15
Q

What limits anterior sacral rotation

A

Sacrotuberous, sacrospinal, and interosseus sacroiliac ligaments

16
Q

What is nutation of the sacroiliac joint

A

Rotation or tilting of the sacrum around a horizontal axis through the interosseus ligaments

17
Q

What is anterior nutation

A

When the promontory moves anterior and inferior and the coccyx moves superior and posterior

18
Q

What is counter nutation

A

The opposite of anterior nutation. The promontory moves superior and posterior, and the coccyx moves anterior and inferior

19
Q

What roll does nutation play in birthing

A

Nutation brings the iliac crests closer together and the ischial tuberosities further apart, increasing the size of the pelvic outlet, making a bigger birth canal

20
Q

What is a common fracture site on the femur

A

The neck

21
Q

What is the hip joint

A

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket synovial joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the coxal bone

22
Q

What ligaments form the hip joint

A

Transverse acetabular, acetabular ligament, ligamentum teres

23
Q

What are the stabilizing ligaments of the hip joint

A

iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, pubofemoral ligaments

24
Q

What is the role of the iliofemoral ligament

A

limits hyperextension of the femur

25
Q

What is the role of the ischiofemoral ligament

A

reinforces hip capsule posteriorly

26
Q

What is the role of the pubofemoral ligament

A

reinforces hip capsule inferiorly

27
Q

What is an alternative name for the iliofemoral ligament

A

The Y-ligament of Bigelow

28
Q

How do the hip stabilizers maintain tension

A

They are positioned in a spiral so that no matter how the femur moves, there is tension

29
Q

What is the blood supply to the femoral neck

A

Medial and lateral circumflex femoral aa

30
Q

What is the blood supply to the femoral head

A

medial and lateral epiphyseal aa

31
Q

<p>

| What is interesting about the lateral epiphyseal artery</p>

A

<p>

| It is easy disrupted by fracture, dislocations, etc which can lead to necrosis</p>

32
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the gluteus maximus

A

O: iliac crest and sacrum/coccyx
I: Gluteal tuberosity and iliotibial tract

33
Q

What is the action of the gluteus maximus

A

extend, lateral rotate femur

34
Q

What is origin and insertion of the Psoas major

A

O: bodies and tvps of T12-L5
I: Lesser trochanter of femur

35
Q

What is the innervation of the psoas major

A

N: L1-4

36
Q

What is the action of the psoas major

A

Laterally flex vertebral column and flex femur at hip

37
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the psoas minor

A

O: Bodies of T12-L5
I: Pectineal line of the pubis

38
Q

What is the innervation of the psoas minor

A

L1

39
Q

What is the action of the psoas minor

A

Weaker flexor of the lumbar spine

40
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the iliacus

A

O: iliac fossa
I: lesser trochanter

41
Q

What is the innervation the iliacus

A

Femoral N.

42
Q

What is origin and insertion of the gluteus medius

A

O: Dorsum ilium
I: greater trochanter

43
Q

What is the action of the gluteus medius

A

Abduct, medially rotate femur; during gait, supports body on one leg while the other leg swings forward

44
Q

What is the innervation of the glut max

A

Inferior gluteal N (L5, S1,2)

45
Q

What is the innervation of the glut med and min

A

Superior gluteal n (L5, S1)

46
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the gluteus minimus

A

O: Dorsal ilium
I: greater trochanter

47
Q

What is the action of the gluteus minimus

A

Abduct, medially rotate the femur; assists the glut med in supporting the body during gait

48
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the tensor fascia lata

A

O: ASIS, anterior iliac crest
I: iliotibial tract

49
Q

What is the innervation of the tensor fascia lata

A

Superior gluteal N (L4,5)

50
Q

What is the action of the tensor fascia lata

A

Abduct, medially rotate, flex femur; keep knee extended

51
Q

<p>

| What muscles laterally rotate the femur</p>

A

<p>

| Obturators internus and externus, superior and inferior gemelli, piriformis, quadratus femoris, and gluteus maximus</p>

52
Q

What muscles medially rotate the femur

A

Tensor fascia lata, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus

53
Q

What muscles abduct the femur

A

Tensor fascia lata, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and piriformis

54
Q

What hip/gluteal muscles extend the femur

A

Gluteus maximus

55
Q

What hip/gluteal muscles flex the femur

A

Iliacus and psoas

56
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the obturators internus and externus

A

O: Obturator membrane
I: Greater trochanter

57
Q

What is the innervation of the obturator internus

A

Nerve to obturator internus (L5,S1)

58
Q

What is the innervation of the obturator externus

A

Obturator N (L3,4)

59
Q

What is the action of the obturators internus and externus

A

Laterally rotate the femur

60
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the superior and inferior gemelli

A

O: ischium
I: greater trochanter

61
Q

What is the innervation of the superior and inferior gemelli

A

Nerve to obturator internus and quadratus femoris

62
Q

What is the action of the superior and inferior gemelli

A

Laterally rotate the femur

63
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the quadratus femoris

A

O: ischial tuberosity
I: quadrate tubercle

64
Q

What is the innervation of the quadratus femoris

A

Nerve to the quadrates femoris

65
Q

What is the action of the quadrates femoris

A

Laterally rotate femur

66
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the piriformis

A

O: anterior sacrum
I: greater trochanter

67
Q

What in the innervation of the piriformis

A

S 1,2

68
Q

What is the action of the piriformis

A

Abduct, laterally rotate femur

69
Q

What happens if the lateral cutaneous nerve is irritated

A

Burning, electric pain in lateral side of thigh

70
Q

What are the major branches from the Lumbar plexus

A

Femoral, obturator, muscular branches, illiohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral cutaneous nerve to the thigh

71
Q

What connects the lumbar and sacral plexi

A

Lumbosacral trunk

72
Q

What are the main branches in the sacral plexus

A

Sciatic, superior gluteal nerve, inferior gluteal nerve, pudendal

73
Q

Where is the sciatic nerve located

A

L4,5 S1,2,3 rami exit through the greater sciatic foramen with the piriformis to travel down the thigh between the hamstrings and adductor magnus before branching in the common fibular and tibial branches

74
Q

What does the sciatic nerve innervate

A

Hamstrings, 1/2 adductor magnus, foot and leg muscles

75
Q

What is a variation found in the sciatic nerve

A

The common fibular portion usually exits below the piriformis but may exit through or above

76
Q

What does the superior gluteal nerve innervate

A

Gluteus minimus, medius, and tensor fascia lata

77
Q

What does the inferior gluteal nerve innervate

A

Gluteus maximus

78
Q

<p>

| What is of interest concerning the medial circumfex artery (artery of the ligamentum teres)</p>

A

<p>

| it is also called the artery of the ligamentum teres and not everyone has one.</p>