Lecture 6 - Brain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6 - Brain Deck (79)
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0
Q

What are the three parts of the brain?

A

Cerebrum, Brainstem, Cerebellum

1
Q

What are the two parts of the CNS?

A

Brain & Spinal Cord

2
Q

What is the spinal cord & where does it run?

A

Long, cylindrical bundle of nerve tissues that extends from the upper border of the atlas (C1) to the 1st/2nd lumbar vertebrae

3
Q

What is at the end of the spinal cord where it narrows?

A

Conus Medullaris

4
Q

What are the spinal nerves called that continue at the end of the spinal cord?

A

Cauda Equina

5
Q

What are the two bulges/enlargements in the spinal cord? What do they supply?

A

Cervical & lumbar regions. They are motor & sensory nerves that come in & out of spinal cord to supply the arms & legs respectively.

6
Q

What extends from the apex of the conus medullaris? What does it do?

A

CT filament called the filum terminale, anchors the cord to the 1st coccygeal segment

7
Q

What are the 5 things that make up the cross section of the spinal cord?

A

White matter, grey matter, central canal, dorsal horns, ventral horns

8
Q

What is the white matter vs. grey matter?

A

Mylinated, outer layer of spinal cord

Unmylinated, inner H-shaped portion of spinal cords

9
Q

What is the central canal of the spinal cord?

A

Filled with CSF, runs longitudinally along length of spinal cord, continuous with ventricular system of the brain

10
Q

What is the dorsal vs ventral horns?

A

Dorsal - sensory nerve tracts

Ventral - motor neurons

12
Q

What does part of the medulla oblongata form?

A

4th ventricle

13
Q

What nuclei are contained in the medulla oblongata

A

for CN IX, X, XI, XII

14
Q

What is the decussation of the pyramids

A

Where the motor fibers from the right hemisphere cross to the left and vice versa

15
Q

What are ‘pyramids’

A

The corticospinal tracts

16
Q

What does the pons contain

A

fiber tracts connecting the medulla and cerebellum with upper portions of the brain, and respiratory center for determining volume of air in lungs

17
Q

What nuclei does the pons contain

A

CN V (motor), VI, VII, and part of VIII

18
Q

What are the 5 main things found in the midbrain

A

Cerebral peduncles, Substantia Nigra, Copora quadrigemina, Nuclei, cerebral aqueduct

19
Q

What are cerebral peduncles

A

connecting tracts between the pons and cerebrum

20
Q

What is the substantial nigra

A

Dopamine producing regions associated with reward addiction and movement

21
Q

What is the corpora quadrigemina

A

Masses that make up the superior and inferior colliculi

22
Q

What nuclei can be found in the mindbrain

A

for CN III, IV, V (sensory)

23
Q

What is the cerebellum responsible for

A

balance/posture, learning of motions, cognitive functions, and motor coordination “fine tunes motions”

24
Q

What happens if the cerebellum is damaged

A

Lack of coordination in gait, speech, etc

25
Q

What connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum

A

Corpus callosum

26
Q

What are the lobes of the cerebrum

A

Frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal

27
Q

What is a gyrus

A

Convolution of the cortex

28
Q

What is a sulcus

A

Fissure between to gyri

29
Q

What happens in the cerebral cortex

A

sensorimotor integration and erceptive qualities of our experiences

30
Q

What is the longitudinal sulcus/fissure

A

Divides the brain into right and left halves

31
Q

What is the lateral (sylvian) sulcus

A

separates temporal from frontal lobes

32
Q

What is the central sulcus

A

Separates the frontal from parietal lobes

33
Q

What is the frontal lobe responsible for

A

primary motor activity, behavior, speech production

34
Q

What is the parietal lobe responsible for

A

primary somatosensory and proprioception; association of somatosensory, vision, audition; formation of egocentric space and sense of self

35
Q

What is the occipital lobe responsible for

A

vision

36
Q

What is the temporal lobe responsible for

A

Audition, olfaction, memory

37
Q

What is a homunculus

A

“little man” area of the brain where we have a little map of ourselves, both sensory and motor. (proprioception center)

38
Q

Where is the sensory homunculus

A

represented on the post central gyrus of the parietal lobe

39
Q

Where is the motor homunculus

A

Represented on the pre central gyrus of the frontal lobe

40
Q

What is the thalamus

A

relay center where all senses except smell integrate

41
Q

What is the function of the hypothalamus

A

Chief region for integration of the autonomic nervous system; produces ADH and Oxytocin; regulates thirst and body temperature

42
Q

What is CN I

A

Olfactory nerve; give us our sense of smell

43
Q

How does one test CN I

A

Wafting a non-irritating scent under a patient’s nose

44
Q

What is CN II

A

Optic Nerve; transmits retinal images to occipital lobe of brain

45
Q

How does one test CN II

A

Smellen chart and fundoscopic examination

46
Q

What is CN III

A

oculomotor nerve

47
Q

What does the oculomotor nerve innervate

A

Superior, inferior, and medial recti, inferior oblique, levator palpebrae superioris, and muscles that control pupilary constriction

48
Q

What is CN IV

A

troclear nerve; innervates superior oblique muscle of the eye

49
Q

What is CN VI

A

Abducens Nerve; innervates lateral rectus muscle of the eye

50
Q

How does one test CN III, IV, VI

A

Observe the alignment of the eyes and have a patient follow a moving object with their eyes. Shine a light in their eye to test for pupillary constriction

51
Q

What is CN V

A

trigeminal nerve

52
Q

What does CN V innervate

A

Sensory to most of the face, motor to the muscles of mastication; responsible for the corneal reflex

53
Q

How does one test CN V

A

Lightly touching face and cornea with a cotton swab, observe bite strength

54
Q

What are the branches of CN V

A

V1, V2, V3 Opthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, respectively

55
Q

What is CN VII

A

Facial nerve

56
Q

What does CN VII innervate

A

Muscles of facial expression, parasympathetic motor innervation to lacrimal gland

57
Q

What are two notable branches of CN VII

A

Nerve to the stapedius, Chorda tympani (anterior 2/3 of tongue)

58
Q

How des one test CN VII

A

observe patient ability to make facial expressions; test taste with making them identify a flavor

59
Q

How does the corneal reflex work

A

Sensory information from the cornea goes out on CN V, but the efferent response is activated by CN VII

60
Q

What is CN VIII

A

Vestibulocochlear nerve (audibular)

61
Q

What are the main divisions of CN VIII

A

Vestibular branch that determines head position/acceleration info from the middle ear; cochlear branch processes sound information from the inner ear

62
Q

How does one test CN VIII

A

With a tuning fork. Head movements can be introduced and observe the patient for nystagmus

63
Q

What is CN IX

A

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

64
Q

What does CN IX provide sensory innervation for

A

Carotid bodies/sinus, posterior 1/3 of tongue, pharynx, middle ear, and fast from posterior 1/3 of tongue

65
Q

What does CN IX provide motor innervation for

A

Stylopharyngeal muscle and parotid gland

66
Q

How does one test CN IX

A

Assess ability to taste on posterior 1/3 of tongue; determine if sensation is intact on arches of the palate

67
Q

What is CN X

A

Vagus nerve

68
Q

What does CN X provide efferent parasympathetic innervation for

A

All organs below the neck down to the proximal half of the transverse colon, with the exception of the adrenal glands

69
Q

What doe CN X provide motor innervation for

A

Muscles of speech such as the larynx, cricothyroid and pharyngeal constrictors

70
Q

What is CN XI

A

Accessory nerve

71
Q

What does CN XI innervate

A

Motor innervation to the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

72
Q

How is CN XI tested

A

Ask the patine to contract the trap or SCM against resistance

73
Q

What is CN XII

A

Hypoglossal Nerve

74
Q

What does CN XII innervate

A

Motor innervation to all the muscles of the tongue except palatoglossus

75
Q

How does one test CN XII

A

Ask patient to stick out his tongue. If it deviates, that indicates a dysfunction

76
Q

True/False. The Cerebellum initiates movements.

A

False. It does not initiates movements, but is responsible for fine tuning motions

77
Q

What does the Longitudinal fissure divide?

A

divides brain into left and right halves

78
Q

What do the lateral (Sylvian) sulcus separates?

A

Temporal from frontal lobes

79
Q

What does the central sulcus separate?

A

The frontal from parietal lobe