Lecture 7 part II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7 part II Deck (37)
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1
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in the anterior/posterior spinal arteries

A

Loss of spinal cord function at level of occlusion (paralysis, loss of sensation, etc)

2
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)

A

Wallenberg syndrome: Loss of pain and temperature sensation on contralateral side of body/torso, and ipsilateral side of face

3
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

A

Lateral Pontine syndrom: sudden onset of vomiting/vertigo, Ipsilateral loss of sensation to face and ipsilateral face paralysis

4
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in the superior cerebellar artery

A

Ipsilateral limb dysmetria, contralateral loss of sensation

5
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in the Pontine artery

A

contralateral paralysis and loss of sensation. Often results in death, depends on size of infarct

6
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in the labyrinthins artery

A

ipsilateral hearing loss and vertigo

7
Q

What is the circle of willis

A

Communicating branches form anastomoses between cerebral aa

8
Q

Where is the middle cerebral artery

A

along the lateral fissure (sylvian sulcus) and lateral surface of cerebral cortex

9
Q

What happens if there is a stroke in a cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery

A

Because the branches go to the lateral surface of the cortex, there is often contralateral paralysis and sensory loss, and aphasia if it was on the dominant side

10
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in a lateral striate branch of the middle artery

A

Because they supply internal capsule and basal ganglia, hemiplegia often results

11
Q

What does the posterior cerebral artery supply

A

occipital and temporal lobes

12
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in the posterior cerebral artery

A

Visual field defects, prosopagnosia, contralateral deficits of CN VII, X, XII, and ipsilateral deficits of CN III

13
Q

What happens if there is an occlusion in the anterior cerebral artery

A

contralateral paralysis and sensory loss in leg and foot, Abulia: lack of will or initiative. pronounced passivity, reduced social interactions, emotional responsiveness

14
Q

What direction does blood from cerebral hemispheres and brain stem drain

A

Outwards into surface veins

15
Q

How does blood get to the dural sinuses

A

cerebral veins drain it there

16
Q

What is a dural sinus

A

venous compartment within the dura mater

17
Q

What are the dural sinuses associated with the falx cerebri

A

Superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight

18
Q

<p>What are the dural sinuses associated with the tentorium cerebelli</p>

A

<p>Straight, confluens, transverse, sigmoid</p>

19
Q

What are the dural sinuses associated with the anterior cranial base

A

Cavernous, inferior and superior petrosal sinuses

20
Q

Where is the cavernous sinus

A

On either side of the sella tursica surrounding the pituitary gland

21
Q

What is the function of the cavernous sinus

A

Receives blood from local sinuses, orbital veins, and communicates with the pterygoid plexus in the lateral pterygoid muscles

22
Q

What is the function of the superior and inferior petrosal sinuses

A

Drain blood from cavernous sinus posteriorly into transverse sinus

23
Q

What passes through the cavernous sinus

A

Internal carotid, CN III, IV, V, VI

24
Q

What are the anterior and posterior longitudinal sinuses

A

Valveless veins around dura in spine

25
Q

What is the basivertebral vein

A

Drains the vertebral body and is route of metastasis for prostate cancer to spine

26
Q

What are emissary veins

A

Vein that allow blood to flow freely between scalp and dural sinuses

27
Q

What is the function of emissary veins

A

Helps thermoregulate the brain by shunting hot blood to the surface in hyperthermia

28
Q

What cells make up the blood brain barrier

A

endothelium, pericytes, astrocyte feet, and basal lamina

29
Q

What does the blood brain barrier filter out

A

large, water soluble molecules

30
Q

How is the blood brain barrier maintained

A

astrocyte feet induce and maintain tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells

31
Q

How does glucose and amino acids reach the brain

A

They penetrate endothelial cells via transporters

32
Q

How do gases reach the brain

A

They diffuse (as always)

33
Q

What part of the brain is not protected by the Blood brain barrier

A

The hypothalamus, area postrema and other periventricular regions (limbic system)

34
Q

What is the import of some regions of the brain not being protected by the blood brain barrier

A

passage of larger molecules, hormones can contact the hypothalamus, poisons can stimulate pathway to vomit center

35
Q

What is the blood CSF barrier

A

tight junctions between choroidal epithelial cells making it impermeable to larger molecules

36
Q

What is the brain CSF barrier

A

free movement between the brain interstitium and ventricles through ependymal cells

37
Q

What type of substance can go through any of the barriers in the brain

A

lipophilic substances like alcohol, anesthetics