Lecture 5 - Head & Neck Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5 - Head & Neck Deck (81)
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0
Q

What are the two major division in the skull bones?

A

Neurocranium (protects the brain) & viscerocranium (sense organ encased, face)

1
Q

How many bones are in the skull? How many associated bones?

A

22 bones + 7 associated bones

2
Q

What are the bones contained in the neurocranium (6)?

A

Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid

3
Q

What are the bones of the viscerocranium (8)?

A

Mandible, Maxilla, Zygoma, Volmer, Lacrima, Nasal, Palatine, Inferior Nasal Concha

4
Q

What is the top of the skull called?

A

Calvaria or Cranial Vault

5
Q

What makes up the Calvaria?

A

The bones of neurocranium (frontal, parietal, & occipital bones)

6
Q

How are the bones of the neurocranium formed? Why?

A
Intramembranous ossification (vs. incondyle ossification). 
Due to quick & large brain growth.
7
Q

What does the convex shape of the Calvaria do?

A

Resist impact

8
Q

Why in newborns do the cranial bones not articulate?

A

To allow for passage of the head through the birth canal and accommodate the growth of the brain.

9
Q

What are the soft spots in a newborn head called and what are they?

A

Fontanelles, membrane covered parts of the skull where sutures will form

10
Q

How long do fontanelles exist in babies?

A

Until about 7-19 months

11
Q

What do bulging/tense fontanelles indicate?

A

Increased intracranial pressure

12
Q

How many fossae are contained in the cranial base and what are their names?

A

Anterior, Middle, Posterior

13
Q

What does the anterior fossa of the cranial base contain?

A

Frontal lobe, Cranial N. #1

14
Q

What makes up the anterior fossa of the cranial base?

A

Frontal bone, crista galli, cribiform plate of ethmoid, lesser wings of sphenoid.

15
Q

What makes up the posterior fossa of the cranial base?

A

Sphenoid, Temporal, & Occipital bones.

16
Q

What does the posterior fossa of the cranial base contain?

A

Occipital lobe, cerebellum, brainstem.

Many holes: foramen magnum, hypoglossal canal, jugular foramen, & internal auditory meatus

17
Q

What makes up the middle fossa of the cranial base?

A

sphenoid & temporal bones

19
Q

What are the important landmarks in the middle fossa of the cranial base?

A

Sella tursica, chiasmic groove, optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, foramen lacerum, & cavernous sinus.

19
Q

Where does the temporal lobe of the brain rest?

A

Middle fossa of the cranial base

20
Q

What important structures are located in the middle fossa of the cranial base?

A

Pituitary, Optic chiasm, Optic nerve, Internal carotid artery, & cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2, and VI

21
Q

What does the mandible articulate with?

A

Temporal bones at the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

22
Q

What is the percentage of facial injuries that involve mandibular fracture?

A

20% or 1/5

23
Q

What does the Mandible do?

A

It holds the lower row of teeth in gomphosis joint at alveolar processes

24
Q

What are the gums/teeth innervated by?

A

Inferior alveolar N.

25
Q

Where does the inferior alveolar nerve travel through?

A

Mandibular foramen

26
Q

What type of joint is the TMJ?

A

Synovial joint with an articular disc

27
Q

What is the innervation of the TMJ?

A

Mandibular branch of the trigeminal N.

28
Q

What is the articulation of the TMJ?

A

Between condylar process of the mandible & mandibular fossa & articular tubercle of the temporal bone.

29
Q

What is the shape of the Hyoid bone?

A

U-shaped bone

30
Q

What is the hyoid bone suspended by?

A

Stylohyoid lig. from the styloid processes of temporal bones.

31
Q

What are the parts of the hyoid bone?

A

Body, 2 lesser cornua, 2 greater cornua

32
Q

What is the only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bone?

A

Hyoid bone

33
Q

What bone is an attachment point for muscles responsible for speech and swallowing?

A

Hyoid bone

34
Q

What does deglutination mean?

A

Swallowing

35
Q

What are three holes in the bony orbit of the eye?

A

Superior & inferior orbital fissure, optic canal

36
Q

What 7 bones make up the bony orbit (area eye sits in)?

A

Frontal, Maxillary, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Lacrimal, Zygomatic, Palantine

37
Q

What three bones form the bulk of the outer ring of the eye?

A

Frontal, zygomatic, and Maxillary bones

38
Q

What is the nasal cavity lined with?

A

mucosa

39
Q

What do the nostrils open up into?

A

nasal cavity

40
Q

What does the lateral wall of the nasal cavity have?

A

Bumpy projections, conchae=turbinates

41
Q

What are the superior & middle conchae a part of?

A

Ethmoid bone

42
Q

What does the roof of the nasal cavity contain?

A

receptors from the olfactory nerve

43
Q

What are the inferior conchae part of?

A

Nothing. They are individual bones derived from the maxilla and thus are considered facial bones

44
Q

What are the two nostrils separated by at midline?

A

nasal septum consisting of perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, vomer, & cartilage (covered with mucosa)

45
Q

What do the conchae of the nasal cavity do? What does the mucosa of the nasal cavity do?

A

Warm & filter inhaled air.

The mucosa serves an immune function by trapping foreign particles & exposing them to APCs (Ag presenting cells)

46
Q

What is a suture?

A

Fibrous joints between the bones of the skull

47
Q

What are the 4 sutures and what are their articulations?

A

Coronal: btwn frontal & parietal
Sagiattal: btwn parietals
Lambdoidal: btwn parietal & occiput
Squamosal: btwn parietal & temporal

48
Q

What is the pteryion?

A

It is the meeting point of the frontal, parietal, greater wing of sphenoid, and sometimes temporal bones

49
Q

What is the bregma?

A

Junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures

50
Q

What is the lamda?

A

junction btwn. the lamdoidal & sagittal sutures

51
Q

What are the sutural lig. that connect the cranial bones?

A

Remaining unossified sheets of mesenchyme from intramembranous ossification

53
Q

What are the sphincter muscles of the facial expression?

A

Orbicularis Oculi & Oris

53
Q

What are the two major divisions of the muscles of the face?

A

Muscles of facial expression and of mastication (eating)

54
Q

Excluding the 2 sphincter muscles, what type of muscle are all the muscles of facial expression

A

Dilator muscles

55
Q

What does the orbicularis oculi and oris surround respectively?

A

Oculi - eye

Oris - mouth

56
Q

What is the innervation of the muscles of facial expression

A

Facial Nerve (Cranial Nerve VII)

57
Q

What are the muscles of mastication?

A

Temporalis, Masseter, Medial & Lateral Pterygoid

58
Q

What are the muscles of mastication innervated by?

A

Trigeminal N. (CN V)

59
Q

What are the actions of the muscles of mastication?

A

Movements of the jaw: elevation, depression, protraction, retraction

60
Q

What action does the medial pterygoid do?

A

elevation & protraction

61
Q

What actions does the lateral pterygoid muscle do?

A

Depression & protraction

62
Q

What actions do the temporalis do?

A

Elevation & retraction

63
Q

What actions do the masseter muscle do?

A

elevation & protraction

64
Q

What is the only muscle of mastication that depresses?

A

Lateral pterygoid

65
Q

What is the only muscle of mastication that retracts?

A

Temporalis

66
Q

What are the two divisions of the anterior neck?

A

Anterior triangle & posterior triangle

67
Q

What borders the anterior triangle of the anterior neck?

A

sternocleidomastoid, inferior border of mandible, and anterior midline of neck

69
Q

What borders the posterior triangle of the anterior portion of neck?

A

sternocleidomastoid, clavicle, and trapezius

70
Q

What are the muscles of deglutition/speech

A

digastric, mylohyoid, sternohyoid, omohyoid, cricothyroid, thyrohyoid, sternothyroid

71
Q

What is the ansa cervicalis

A

loop that links C 1 and 2 nerve roots

72
Q

What muscles does the ansa cervicalis innervate

A

Sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid

73
Q

What innervates the digastric

A

Anterior belly: trigeminal, Posterior belley: facial

74
Q

What innervates the mylohyoid

A

trigeminal

75
Q

What innervates the cricothyroid

A

Vagus

76
Q

What innervates the thyrohyoid

A

1st cervical nerve, via the hypoglossal

77
Q

What does CN VII generally innnervate

A

Motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression

78
Q

What are the branches of CN VII

A

Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, and cervical

79
Q

What does CN V generally innervate

A

sensory innervation to the face

80
Q

What are the branches of the common carotid

A

Internal carotid and external carotid, which gives of the temporal and facial aa

81
Q

How does the blood drain from the brain

A

It flows through sinuses, no valves, just follows gravity and the path of least resistance