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Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (85)
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1
Q

What are the motions of the foot

A

Dorsiflexion/plantar flexion and pronation/supination (eversion/inversion)

2
Q

What ligaments hold together the inferior tibiofibular joint

A

anterior tibiofibular ligament, posterior tibiofibular ligament, and the interosseus membrane

3
Q

What kind of joint is the inferior tibiofibular joint

A

Syndesmosis

4
Q

What is the ankle joint

A

Hinge type synovial joint between tibia, fibula, and talus

5
Q

What motion does the ankle joint allow

A

Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

6
Q

Where is the deltoid ligament located

A

On the medial ankle spanning from the medial malleolus to navicular, calcaneus, and talus bones.

7
Q

What is the role of the deltoid ligament

A

Resists eversion of the foot

8
Q

Where are the anterior and posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments

A

They span the bones their names suggest and are all found on the lateral side of the ankle. THey work together to resists inversion of the foot

9
Q

What is the most common kind of ankle sprain

A

Inversion sprain is most common because the lateral is more inferior that the medial malleolus and the deltoid ligament is stronger than the lateral ligaments.

10
Q

What is the Talo-calcaneo-navicular joint

A

Head of the talus inserts between navicular and calcaneus

11
Q

What is the spring ligament

A

Ligament between the calcaneus and navicular that prevents the talus from wedging the bones apart

12
Q

What is the sub talar (talo-calcaneal) joint

A

The facet joint where the talus rests on the calcaneus

13
Q

What motion happens at the Talo-calcaneo-navicular joint

A

inversion and eversion

14
Q

Where is the long plantar ligament

A

Spans from the calcaneus to metatarsals 2-5 and forms a tunnel for the fibularis longs tendon

15
Q

Where is the short plantar ligament located

A

From the calcaneus to the cuboid

16
Q

Where is the deep transverse ligament

A

It spans the MTP joints to link all 5

17
Q

What are the muscles of the anterior group of the leg and what innervates them

A

Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, exntensor digitorum longus, and fibularis tertius are all innervated by the deep fibular nerve (peroneal)

18
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the tibialis anterior

A

O: upper 2/3 of tibia, interosseus membrane
I: 1st MT, medial cuneiform

19
Q

What is the action of the tibilalis anterior

A

Dorsiflex and invert foot

20
Q

What is the origin and insertion of extensor hallucis longus

A

O: fibula, interosseus membrane
I: distal phalanx hallux

21
Q

What is the action of the extensor hallucis longus

A

extend hallux and dorsiflex foot

22
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the extensor digitorum longus

A

O: upper 3/4 fibula, interosseus membrane
I: Middle and distal phalanges

23
Q

What is the action of the extensor digitorum longus

A

Extend digits 2-5 and dorsiflex foot

24
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the fibularis tertius

A

O: lower 1/3 fibula
I: 5th metatarsal

25
Q

What is the action of the fibularis tertius

A

Dorsiflexion and eversion of foot

26
Q

What is the innervation and action of the lateral group of the leg

A

N: Superficial fibular
A: evert and plantar flex foot

27
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the fibularis longus

A

O: Upper 2/3 of fibula
I: 1st MT; medial cuneiform

28
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the fibularis brevis

A

O: lower 1/3 of fibula
I: 5th MT

29
Q

What is the innervation of the posterior group of the leg

A

Gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, flexors digitorum longus and hallucis longus, and tibilas posterior are all innervated by the TIbial nerve

30
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the gastrocnemius

A

O: femoral condyles
I: Calcaneus

31
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the soleus

A

O: upper fibula and tibia
I: Calcaneus

32
Q

What is the action of the gastrocnemius

A

Plantar flex foot (fast) flex knee

33
Q

What is the action of the soleus

A

Plantar flex foot (slow) maintain standing

34
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the plantaris

A

O: Lateral supracondylar ridge
I: calcaneus

35
Q

What is the action of the plantaris

A

Plantar flex foot

36
Q

How does the body maintain upright posture

A

The body wants to fall forward so the soleus and erector spinae work together to pull the body posteriorly

37
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the flexor digitorum longus

A

O: Tibia
I: distal phalanges

38
Q

What is the action of the flexor digitorum longus

A

Flex toes and plantar flex foot

39
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the flexor hallucis longus

A

O: Fibula
I: distal phalanx hallux

40
Q

What is the action of the flexor hallucis longus

A

Flex hallux and plantar flex foot

41
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the Tibialis posterior

A

O: Tibia, fibula, IO membrane
I: navicular, calcaneus, cubiod, all cuneiforms, meta tarsals 2-4

42
Q

What is the action of the tibialis posterior

A

Invert, plantar flex foot

43
Q

Which 7 muscles plantar flex the foot

A

Gastrocnemius, soleus, flexors digitorum longus and hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, and fibularis longus and brevis

44
Q

Which 4 muscles dorsiflex the foot

A

Exensors digitorum longus and hallucis longus, tibialis anterior, and fibularis tertius

45
Q

Which 2 muscles invert the foot

A

Tibialis posterior and tibialis anterior

46
Q

Which 3 muscles evert the foot

A

Fibularis longus and brevis, and fibularis tertius

47
Q

Where is the common fibular nerve

A

It branches from the sciatic nerve and passes around the head of the fibula through the fibularis longus

48
Q

Where is the superficial fibular nerve

A

Branches from the common fibular and goes in the lateral compartment of leg

49
Q

Where is the deep fibular nerve

A

Branches from the common fibular nerve and travels into the anterior compartment

50
Q

What happens if the common fibular nerve is injured

A

Foot drop: loss of dorsiflexion and eversion

51
Q

Who commonly has foot drop

A

Alcoholics, tertiary syphilis, and diabetics

52
Q

Where is the tibial nerve

A

Passes between the deep and superficial posterior muscles

53
Q

What are the two most tested reflexes of the lower limb

A

Patellar reflex to test L4 nerve root, and Achilles reflex to test S1 nerve root

54
Q

Where is the extensor retinaculum

A

over the extensor tendons complete with synovial sheathes

55
Q

Where is the flexor retinaculum

A

Between the tibia and calcaneus, over the flexor tendons T, D, and H

56
Q

What is the plantar aponeurosis (fascia)

A

Continuation of achilles tendon from antero-medial calcaneus to head of metacarpals

57
Q

What is plantar fasciitis

A

Inflammation usually localized at calcaneal attachment. Calcaneal spurs can develop

58
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the extensors hallucis brevis and digitorum brevis

A

O: Dorsal surface of calcaneus
I: proximal phalanges

59
Q

What is the innervation and action of extensors hallucis brevis and digitorum brevis

A

N: Deep fibular N
A: extend big toe and digits, respectively

60
Q

<p>

| What is the origin of Abductor Hallucis, flexor digitorm brevis, and abductor digiti minimi</p>

A

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| Calcaneus</p>

61
Q

What is the insertion of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi

A

Abductor Hallucis: Proximal phalanx of digit 1
Abductor digiti minimi: Promixal phlanx of digit 5
Flexor D.B: middle phalanx of digits 2-5

62
Q

What is the innervation of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi

A

Abductor hallucis and flexor DB: Med Plantar N

Aductor digiti minimi: Lateral Plantar N

63
Q

What is the action of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi

A

abductor hallucis: Flex, abduct digit 1
flexor digitorum brevis: flex digits 2-5
abductor digiti minimi: flex, abduct digit 5

64
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the quadratus plantae

A

O: Calcaneus
I: tendons of Flexor digitorum longus

65
Q

What is the innervation and action of the quadratus plantae

A

N: Lateral plantar N
A: flex digits 2-5

66
Q

What is the origin and insertion of lumbricals

A

O: Tendons of flexor digitorum longus
I: Extensor expansions

67
Q

What is the innervation and action of lumbricals

A

N: L1 medial plantar nerve, L2,3,4 Lateral plantar N
A: extend IP, flex MTP joints (tata!)

68
Q

What is the origin and insertion of flexor hallucis brevis

A

O: cuboid, lateral cuneiform
I: proximal phalanx of digit 1

69
Q

What is the innervation and action of the flexor hallucis brevis

A

N: Medial plantar nerve
A: flex 1st MTP joint

70
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the adductor hallucis

A

O: MT for the transverse and oblique heads
I: Proximal phalanx of digit 1

71
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the flexor digit minimi

A

O: MT 5
I: proximal phalanx of the 5th digit

72
Q

What is the innervation of the adductor hallucis and flexor digit minimi

A

Lateral plantar nerve

73
Q

What is the role of the sesamoid bones in the flexor hallucis brevis

A

They protect the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus

74
Q

What is the origin and insertion of the plantar and dorsal interossei

A

O: metatarsals
I: proximal phalanx, extensor expansion

75
Q

What is the innervation and action of the plantar and dorsal interossei

A

N: Lateral plantar nerve
A: Both Flex MTP, Ext IP joints, Plantar adducts toes and dorsal abduct toes

76
Q

What is the cutaneous innervation of the foot

A

Medial plantar innervations 3.5 digits, lateral plantar innervates lateral 1.5 digits (Just like with the median and ulnar nerve in the hand)

77
Q

Where is the acupuncture point LV3 located

A

1st dorsal interossei. When combined with LI 4 in the 1st dorsal interosseus of the hand, it is good for relieving headaches

78
Q

What are the arches in the foot

A

External (lateral) longitudinal arch, Internal (medial) longitudinal arch, and the transverse (anterior) arch

79
Q

What is the most inferior diaphragm in the body

A

Plantar fascia

80
Q

What forms the medial longitudinal arch

A

Calcaneus, talus, navicular, 3 cuneiforms, and 3 MTs

81
Q

What supports the medial longitudinal arch

A

4 Muscles: flexor hallucis longus, abductor hallucis, tibialis anterior and posterior
3 CT: plantar aponeurosis, spring ligament, plantar ligament

82
Q

What forms the lateral longitudinal arch

A

Calcaneus, cuboid, lateral 2 MT

83
Q

What supports the lateral longitudinal arch

A

4 Muscles: Abductor digiti minimi, fibularis longus, brevis, and tertius
3 CT: plantar aponeurosis, long and short plantar ligaments

84
Q

What forms the transverse arch

A

Cuboid, cuneiforms, the 5 MT

85
Q

What supports the transverse arch

A

2 Muscles: Fibularis longus, adductor hallucis

1 CT: deep transverse ligaments