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Flashcards in lecture 4 Deck (36)
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1
Q

What is the branching of the Abdominal aorta

A

The abdominal aorta branches into left and right common iliac aa, which then branches into left and right internal and external iliac aa

2
Q

What are the 3 branches of the internal iliac artery

A

Obturator, superior gluteal, and inferior gluteal aa

3
Q

What does the obturator artery supply

A

the acetabular branch provides an artery to the head of the femur through the ligamentum teres (artery to the ligamentum teres)

4
Q

What does the superior gluteal artery supply

A

gluteal muscles

5
Q

What does the inferior gluteal artery supply

A

gluteus maximus, and muscles that attach to the ischial tuberosity

6
Q

What 5 structures must be avoided when giving a gluteal injection

A

Superior gluteal A and N, inferior gluteal A and N, and the sciatic N. Draw a line from the PSIS to the greater trochanter and inject above it to avoid all of them

7
Q

Where does the femoral artery travel

A

The external iliac artery becomes the femoral artery when it passes under the inguinal ligament. It then passes through the femoral triangle, penetrates the adductor hiatus to the posterior thigh and is now the popliteal artery.

8
Q

What are the 3 main branches off the femoral artery

A

Superficial epigastric, profunda femoris (deep femoral), and external pudendal aa

9
Q

What does the profunda femoris supply

A

Descends to supply much of the adductor compartment

10
Q

What does the external pudendal aa supply

A

Runs medially over the spermatic cord or round ligament of the uterus to supply the external genitalia

11
Q

Where are the superficial epigastric aa

A

Run subcutaneously and superiorly to the umbilicus to supply the superficial fascia and anastomoses with the inferior epigastric

12
Q

Where do the lateral and medial femoral circumflex aa branch from and travel to

A

They both branch from either the femoral or deep femoral artery. (yay anatomic variation) They supply the head and neck of the femur, with the medial being the more important of the two

13
Q

Why is the head of the femur so easy to damage

A

Because it has a limited blood supply from the medial femoral circumflex artery through the vessels that travel through the epiphyseal plate.

14
Q

Where is the popliteal artery

A

It’s the continuation of the femoral artery from the adductor hiatus to inferior border of the popliteal fossa in the back of the knee (it’s the posterior tibial artery once it crosses inferior border of popliteus muscle)

15
Q

What are the main branches of the popliteal artery

A

posterior tibial artery and eventually the fibular artery

16
Q

What are the main branches off the posterior tibial artery

A

Anterior tibial and fibular aa

17
Q

What does the fibular artery supply

A

The lateral compartment of the leg

18
Q

What does the posterior tibial artery supply

A

The posterior compartment of the leg

19
Q

What does the anterior tibial artery supply

A

Travels through a gap in the interosseus membrane to supply the anterior compartment of the leg

20
Q

How does the tibial artery terminate

A

It splits into medial and lateral plantar arteries after it wraps around the medial malleolus

21
Q

What do the medial and lateral plantar aa supply

A

The sole of the foot

22
Q

how does the anterior tibial artery terminate

A

It turns into the dorsalis pedis artery, which is a palpable pulse on dorsum of the foot and branches to supply the toes

23
Q

Where is the popliteal fossa

A

Between the lower tendons of hamstrings and heads of the gastrocnemius

24
Q

What travels through the popliteal fossa

A

popliteal A and V, tibial and common fibular nn, lymph nodes

25
Q

What is a common pathology of the popliteal fossa

A

popliteal artery suffers from vasoconstriction

26
Q

What forms the femoral triangle

A

Inguinal ligament, sartorius, and adductor longus

27
Q

What travels trough the femoral triangle

A

Femoral A, V, N, inguinal lymph nodes, great saphenous V. Remember NAVEL

28
Q

What is a femoral hernia

A

When some intestine passes through the femoral canal under the inguinal ligament. It presents as a bulge or lump in the area of the femoral triangle

29
Q

What is the difference between a reducible and strangulated hernia

A

Reducible hernias the intestine is able to slide freely whereas strangulated it is trapped and irritates neighboring tissues

30
Q

What is standard treatment for a femoral hernia

A

surgery.

31
Q

What is the significant superficial vein in the lower limb

A

the long (great) saphenous vein which runs medially along thigh and leg. It’s often used as a source of bypass vessels

32
Q

What is the main path of return for blood

A

most blood (90%) returns to the heart via deep veins, many of which follow deep arteries

33
Q

what are perforating vv

A

veins that connect deep and superficial vv

34
Q

What are varicose vv

A

valves in perforating vv become incompetent and blood pools, looking ugly. So docs will inject a stenosing agent and rip them out upon request.

35
Q

What are the most important lymphatics of the lower limb

A

The popliteal lymph nodes at the back of the knees and the superficial inguinal lymph nodes in the femoral triangle

36
Q

Who’s going to ace their Anatomy Midterm?

A

ME!