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Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (62)
1

Thyroid gland

Largest endocrine gland, has two lobes, located anterior on the neck underneath the larynx of the voice box, and produce 2 hormone

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The two lobes of the thyroid gland is connected by a narrow tissue called

Isthmus

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The two hormone made by the endocrine gland

T3 triiodothyronine and T4 tetraiodothyronine(thyroxin)

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Between T3 and T4 which is produced more

93% of the hormones made are T4 but later converted to T3

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The thyroid gland controls

BMR basal metabolic rate

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Thyroid stimulating hormone

TSH is produce in the pituitary gland and controls thyroid directly.

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TSH is produced

In the adenohypophyseal of the pituitary gland

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Para follicular cells

Release thyrocalcitonin that lowers ca level in the blood

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Follicular cells

Synthesizes an inactive hormone that is a glycoproteins (thyroglobulin) with mainly tyrosine residue

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Thyroglobulin

A precursor to the iodinated T3 and T4 protein

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Parathyroid glands are also found in the

Thyroid glands with two in each lobe making 4 parathyroid

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The hormone produced by the parathyroid glands and it function

PTH to control ca levels

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Hypothyroidism

Caused by not enough iodine, it is acquired through diet, only 1/5 of the iodine is absorbed and the rest is excreted through the kidneys

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TSH is the driving force of

Iodide trapping of the thyroid follicular cells

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During iodide trapping the cell

Becomes 30 times more concentrated with I- in the cytoplasm

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Before organification can occur

Thyroglobulin protein are synthesize they brought to lumen side of cell by exocytosis

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Organification is the

Adding of iodine to thyroglobulin at the apex of the cell

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After organification

The compound is taken up by the cell by endocytosis and goes into the lysosomes of the cell to be cleaved furthermore changing them to an active T3 or T4 hormone

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T3 and T4 can diffuse through the membrane into the bloodstream because they are

Fat soluble

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After diffusing through the membrane T3 and T4

They bind to the protein thyroxine

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Thyroxine -binding protein

A protein that binds to T3 and T4 in the bloodstream to inactivate them. This protein is synthesize in the liver

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NIS (sodium iodide symportor)..

A carrier protein that utilizes secondary active transport to move Na+ and 1I- into the cell

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Pendrin

A counter proter that moves one cl into the cell and one I - out of the cell at the lumen side of the thyroid follicle cell

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Iodanase

An enzyme that attaches iodide to the residues of thyroglobulin proteins will eventually become either T3 and T4. It changes T4 to T3

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Organification

Attachment of iodide to the thyroglobulin protein

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Retinoids

T3 goes into the nucleus and it binds to retnoid x

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Retnoid x

A heterdimer protein that is transcription factor. It make the cell produce more proteins. Retnoid x has a specific Binding site on the DNA

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Response element ( thyroid hormone response element )

Retnoid x has specific binding site on the DNA

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What vitamins also binds to retnoid x

Vitamin D

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Non genomic effects of T3

Increase basal metabolic rate which keeps you alert , causes an increase in cellular respiration, increase protein synthesis and catabolism, increase the number of mitochondria , increase carbohydrate metabolism, it can have an have an opposite effect if the person is deficient in iodine , therefore making them lethargic depressed, low heart rate, and no ambition to do anything

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Other effects of T3

Promote rise of insulin, promote gluconeogenesis, promote fat metabolism, promote cardiovascular system, respiratory rate change, Co2 concentration goes up

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TSH receptors are located

On the surface of the thyroid follicular cells

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Binding of the TSH to the receptor causes

An elevation of cAMp which is a secondary messenger

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Rise in cAmp in the thyroid cells affects

NIS, iodination process, endocytosis of thyroglobulin, breakdown of thyroglobulin, and the size of the thyroid cells.

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TSH is synthesis when

Thryroid releasing hormone( TRH) is deposited into the pituitary gland by the hypothalamus

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The elevation of ca occurs when

TRH receptor activates a G protein which would then activate an enzyme phospholipase that breaks down IP3 which causes an influx of ca

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Short loop feedback involves

The pituitary gland reacting to the excessive or deficient thyroid hormone

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Long loop involves

The hypothalamus reacting to the excessive or deficient thyroid hormone

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The primary feedback of the thyroid gland is

The short loop

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Rumors on the thyroid gland cause

More production of T3 and T4

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Grave disease

Autoimmune disease that produces TSI thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. it attaches to TSH receptor and acts as an agonist to TSH

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Hyperthyroidism

Caused by high levels of thyroid hormones, symptoms include weight loss high metabolism rate, insomnia hand tremors, muscle weakness increase blood pressure, high heart rate and hyperactive.

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Hypothyroidism

Caused by low levels of the thyroid hormones. Symptoms are opposite of hyperthyroidism linked to hashimoto disease

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Hashimoto diseas

Autoimmune disease that causes hypothyroidism, the antibody starts attacking the thyroid follicle cells. Treatment involves a drug called synthroid

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Synthroid is

A drug that mimics the T4 and T3. This is a replacement therapy for goiter

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Goiter

Enlargement of thyroid due to deficieny of thyroid hormone

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Adrenal glands is located

On the kidney

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The nervous system of the adrenal glands

Is a modified sympathetic nervous system where the neurons have lost their their fiber

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The neuron fiber of adrenal glands release nor epinephrine or epinephrine at ..............and acetylcholine at .............

Post synaptic and pre synaptic cleft

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Adrenal glands are stimulated by

ACTH

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Adrenal glands produce

Adrenocoticoid hormones which are glucocorticoid, cortisol, mineralo corticoid, aldosteron, androgen

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The adrenal gland has two layers

Medulla and the cortex

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The layer of the cortex are

Zona glomerulosa, zona fasciulata, and zona reticularis

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Glucocorticoid is responsible for

Regulation of metabolism of glucose(increase glucose in the blood) are part of the feed back mechanism in the immune system that turn immune activity(inflammation) down use to treat over active immune system.

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Cortisol

It is released in response to stress and low level of the blood, it primary functions are to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, supress the immune system, aid in fat,protein and carbohydrate metabolism, it also decrease bone formation

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Mineralo corticoid

Deals with the balance, particularly Na and k

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Aldosterone

Increase the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium in the collecting duct and distal convoluted tubule of the kidney functional unit nephrons . This increase blood volume therefore increasing blood pressure

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Adrogen

Aka adrogenic hormone or testoid, it is the term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually steroid hormone. That stimulates or controls the develop and maintenance of male characteristic by binding to the adrogenic receptors

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Zona glomerulosa produces

Aldosterone, it is very responsive to angiotensin 2, second largest layer

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Zona fasciulata produces

Cortisol, corticosterone, glucocorticoid, the largest gland, produces small amount of androgen and it is affected by adrenocortical tropic hormone(ACTH)

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Zona reticularis produces

Androge, dehydro epiangie steroid DHEA, small amounts of glucocorticoid and estrogen

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Cortisol and corticosterone are what type of hormone

Stress hormones