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Flashcards in Liver Deck (30)
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Function of the liver includes

Filtration and and storage of blood
Metabolism of Nutrients
Formation of bile
Storage of Iron and Vitamins
Synthesis of specific Protein

1

What is hermacatheresis

the rupture of red blood cell releasing hemoglobin then divided in into heme and globulin, heme opens up releasing free irons that is transported in the blood by transferrin... then making several intermediates before been excreted

2

Biliverdin

the first product of hemacatheresis, it is a straight chain unstable molecules then it is converted to bilirubin

3

Bilirubin

it is the major end product of hemcathresis,there are two types
a)free or unconjugated
b)conjugated

4

Free or unconjugated bilirubin

this is the from that is released into the plasma and transported to the liver to be conjugated

5

unfree bilirubin

this form is bilirubin and albumin and is then transported through the blood

6

Bilirubin glucuronide ( conjugated )

In this form it excreted by active transport into the bile canciliculi and then into the intestine

7

the hepatic cell contain large amount of ........ capable of combining reversibility with ion that also act as a blood iron buffer

apoferritin

8

Urobilinogen

once the conjugated bilirubin is in the intestine, bacterial converts it to Urobilinogen, this highly soluble, it is reabsorb through the intestine mucosa to the blood.

9

Stercoblin

In feces urobliniogen is oxidized to form steroblin, this also impact the color of the feces

10

Urobilin

when excreted by the urine through the kidneys urobilinogen get oxidized to urobilin

11

HGF

this is important for the growth and regeneration of the hepatocytes, produced by the mesenchymeal cell in the liver and other tissue and not by the hepatocytes.

12

Epidermal growth factor , cytokine ( TNF) tumor necrosis factor, and interleukine-6 are involved in

the growth and regeneration of the liver

13

Role of TGF transforming growth factor

these is secreted by the hepatocyte, which inhibits liver cell proliferation and terminates liver regeneration

14

The anatomy of the liver

Loubule, Central veins, Hepatic triad, Sinusoids, canaliculi, space of disse, kuppfer cells.

15

the functional unit of the liver

lobule, each lobule has a centra vein

16

central vein

this empties into the hepatic vein then into the vena cava

17

The Hepatic triad

branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct

18

sinusoids

lies between the hepatic plates and then into the central vein, thus the hepatic cells are always exposed continuously to portal venous blood. these are the capillaries of the liver

19

Canaliculi

bile canaliculi empties into the bile duct, it is where the bile is deposited and it flow counter to blood flow

20

Space of disse

space between the endothelial cells and hepatic cells. it is connected with the lymphatic vessels in the interlobular septa. it is used to remove excess fluid through the lymphatics. also space between the canaliculi

21

Kuppfer cells

macrophages that line the sinusoids and are capable of phagocytizing bacteria and other foreign matter in the hepatic sinus blood.

22

the blood receives two types of blood

venous blood and arterial blood and here the blood are mixed together the, there is more venous blood than arterial blood

23

what vitamins does the liver store

vitamin A is stored in large amount, but vitamin D and B12 are also stored in the liver.

24

liver function in protein metabolism

1 deamination of amino acid
2 formation of urea for the removal of ammonia from the body
3 formation of plasma protein
4 interconversion of various amino acid and sythesis of other compound from amino acids

25

the greatest proportion of iron is stored

in the liver as ferritin

26

the storage of ferritin occurs in the hepatic cell

by the combination of apoferritin and ferritin when there is high level of iron in the blood

27

urobilinogen is reabsorbed by

the intestinal mucosa back into the blood

28

function of the liver in response to carbonhydrate

1 store large amount of glycogen
2. conversion of galactose and fructose to glucose
3. glyconeogeneis
4. formation of many chemical compound from intermediates products of carbohydrates metabolism.

30

thrombopoietin

an hormone important in the platelets formation in RBC production by the bone marrow