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Flashcards in Ear Deck (43)
1

Function of the ear

Hearing and balance or vestibular

2

Outer ear pinnacle

This captures sound waves and channels it through the auditory canal

3

The sound waves terminates

On the tympani membrane the tympani membrane as sound hits it and you get vibration of the ear drum

4

Vibration of the ear drum involves

Mechano transduction

5

In the middle ear there are bony structures called

Ossicles, the maleus(hammer), incus(anvil),stapes(stirrup)

6

What structure is the malleus, incus, and stapes connected to

The maleus and the incus are connected the the tympanic membrane, while the stapes is connected to the oval window

7

Eustachean tube

It is a structure in the middle ear that regulates pressure or ear pressure, it makes sure that the pressure is the same as the atmospheric pressure...it communicates neuropharnx and connects the throat to the ear

8

Function of the inner ear

Sound transduction and balance

9

The cranial value of the

Temporal bone

10

Osseus labyrinth

This a bony labyrinth that is hallowed out in the inner ear

11

Membrane labyrinth

This labyrinth follows the cincture of the osseus labyrinth all the activity of the inner ear occurs here

12

Sound transduction

It occurs in a part of the memebranous labyrinth called the cochlear duct

13

Cochlear

In the osseous labyrinth that forms the cochlear duct that is the membranous labyrinth

14

Cochlear duct consist of

Scala vestibuli , scala media this is where sound is transduce, and scala tympani. They are fill with perilymph, endolymph

15

Organ of corti

Located in the scala media, this is where sound is going to be transduced. It consist hair cell not true hair cells

16

The hair cells in the organ if corti

Not true hair cell outer hair cells and inner hair cells.

17

The outer hair and inner hair will synaptically be linked to receptors that carry the Information via

Cranial nerve 8 vestibular cochlear nerve

18

The vestibular nerve has two branch

One that goes up the cochlear and other goes to the vestibular apparatus ( balance)

19

description of the organ of corti

There are sterocilla which are elongation of the hair cells . There is an overlying gelatin membrane called the tectorial membrane on top and at the bottom there is the basilar fiber

20

Explain the transduction of these cells

The basilar fiber vibrates upward pushing the hair cells against the tectorial membrane and compresses them, in response the cells depolarizes, fires, and release neurotransmitter that activates the nerve fiber

21

Most transduction is done in

Inner ear that is 90% of the inner hair cells and outer cell 10%

22

What happens if outer hair cells are destroyed

Hearing is impaired, conclusion is that this out hair cells are need for sensitivity

23

The function of the oval window

Accommodates as increase in pressure, an oval window and a round windows is need so that membrane structure of the inner ear is not broken

24

The frequency and the amplitude or pitch of the sound is due to

To which area of the basilar fiber that is easily affected, these are difference parts of the this membrane that are specialized for pitch determination

25

High frequency are located

In front part of the ear, middle, and lower part of the ear

26

Amplitude has many effects which are

1 one is that it change the frequency of the action potential 2 has a summation effect on hair cell causing more hair cells to be activated you get a summation effect of what happening to the signal

27

The flow of sound transduction

It starts in scalar media associated with organ of corti involving the hair cells and the tectorial membrane and basilar membrane... This is mechano transduction mechano receptor are involved association , brain stem , to hypothalamus

28

There two type the deafness

Conduction deafness and nerve deafness

29

Conductive deafness

Impairment of physical structure of the ear tympani membrane, ossicles that conduct sound itself cochlear, fibrosis, otosclerosis

30

Nerve deafness

Caused by impairment of cochlear or impairment of auditory nerve

31

Fibrosis

Cuts down flexibility of the tympanic membrane, that does not allow for the vibration of ossicles

32

Otosclerosis

Bony material begin to fail in around the space of ossicles, over time they can't vibrate any more

33

Vestibuli labyrinth

Follows the couture of the osseus, there are the saccule and utricle in the first part of the cochlear where saccule and utricle is associated with static balance of head

34

Saccule

Position of the head when you lying down

35

Utricle

Position of the head when vertical or standing up

36

Semicircular duct

Associated with movement of head

37

Crista ampullaris

This receptor site or receptor structure, sensory structure is inside this structure, they will only fire when the cupula is distorted or pushed

38

Endolymph fluids in crista ampullaris

Move through the hair cells to induce a transduction

39

Vestibular apparatus

Balance and equilibrium, saccule and utricle and semicircular duct

40

Maculae

The sensory area in the saccule and utricle, this are also hair cells called the vestibular cilia

41

Otoliths

The gelatinous area that has calcium carbonate crystals

42

The hair cells in the maculae will fire

Due to the compression of the stereo cilia on the kinocilium this is based on gravity the nerve fiber will fire neurotransmitter will release and the message is sent to the cranial nerve 8. Bending in one direction lead to depolarization and the other hyperpolarization

43

Ampullae

Houses the receptor cells, crista ampullaris