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Flashcards in Ear Deck (43)
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Function of the ear

Hearing and balance or vestibular


Outer ear pinnacle

This captures sound waves and channels it through the auditory canal


The sound waves terminates

On the tympani membrane the tympani membrane as sound hits it and you get vibration of the ear drum


Vibration of the ear drum involves

Mechano transduction


In the middle ear there are bony structures called

Ossicles, the maleus(hammer), incus(anvil),stapes(stirrup)


What structure is the malleus, incus, and stapes connected to

The maleus and the incus are connected the the tympanic membrane, while the stapes is connected to the oval window


Eustachean tube

It is a structure in the middle ear that regulates pressure or ear pressure, it makes sure that the pressure is the same as the atmospheric pressure...it communicates neuropharnx and connects the throat to the ear


Function of the inner ear

Sound transduction and balance


The cranial value of the

Temporal bone


Osseus labyrinth

This a bony labyrinth that is hallowed out in the inner ear


Membrane labyrinth

This labyrinth follows the cincture of the osseus labyrinth all the activity of the inner ear occurs here


Sound transduction

It occurs in a part of the memebranous labyrinth called the cochlear duct



In the osseous labyrinth that forms the cochlear duct that is the membranous labyrinth


Cochlear duct consist of

Scala vestibuli , scala media this is where sound is transduce, and scala tympani. They are fill with perilymph, endolymph


Organ of corti

Located in the scala media, this is where sound is going to be transduced. It consist hair cell not true hair cells


The hair cells in the organ if corti

Not true hair cell outer hair cells and inner hair cells.


The outer hair and inner hair will synaptically be linked to receptors that carry the Information via

Cranial nerve 8 vestibular cochlear nerve


The vestibular nerve has two branch

One that goes up the cochlear and other goes to the vestibular apparatus ( balance)


description of the organ of corti

There are sterocilla which are elongation of the hair cells . There is an overlying gelatin membrane called the tectorial membrane on top and at the bottom there is the basilar fiber


Explain the transduction of these cells

The basilar fiber vibrates upward pushing the hair cells against the tectorial membrane and compresses them, in response the cells depolarizes, fires, and release neurotransmitter that activates the nerve fiber


Most transduction is done in

Inner ear that is 90% of the inner hair cells and outer cell 10%


What happens if outer hair cells are destroyed

Hearing is impaired, conclusion is that this out hair cells are need for sensitivity


The function of the oval window

Accommodates as increase in pressure, an oval window and a round windows is need so that membrane structure of the inner ear is not broken


The frequency and the amplitude or pitch of the sound is due to

To which area of the basilar fiber that is easily affected, these are difference parts of the this membrane that are specialized for pitch determination


High frequency are located

In front part of the ear, middle, and lower part of the ear


Amplitude has many effects which are

1 one is that it change the frequency of the action potential 2 has a summation effect on hair cell causing more hair cells to be activated you get a summation effect of what happening to the signal


The flow of sound transduction

It starts in scalar media associated with organ of corti involving the hair cells and the tectorial membrane and basilar membrane... This is mechano transduction mechano receptor are involved association , brain stem , to hypothalamus


There two type the deafness

Conduction deafness and nerve deafness


Conductive deafness

Impairment of physical structure of the ear tympani membrane, ossicles that conduct sound itself cochlear, fibrosis, otosclerosis


Nerve deafness

Caused by impairment of cochlear or impairment of auditory nerve