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Flashcards in Endocrines Deck (51)
1

An hormone is

A bioregulator this will participate in the coordinated interplay between cells, organs , and tissues. It allows them to interact

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Autocrine substance

It is secreted by the cell and it will affect the same cell

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Why does the product of autocrine secretion work outside of the same cell

Because there are receptors that are located on the plasma membrane eg growth factors

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Paracrine secretion

This do not act via the blood they are local acting chemical, they are produced by the cell in the local vicinity, they are deactivated when they get into the blood or can't move through the capillaries eg prostaglandins

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Cytokines

These are growth factors that are produced by cell for specifically for cells that are similar eg immune cells lymphokines these are local in action

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Neurotransmitter

Highly specialized transmitting molecules, involves communication between two neuron, information is moved from pre synaptic to post synaptic, does not gain access to the blood, has a very short life eg acetyl COA , noepiernphrine,dopamine

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Neurosecretion or neurohormone

Product of a neuron, that is transported dismally away from the neuron where it is in effect, longer half, travels by blood eg ADH anti diuretic hormone and oxytosin

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ADH

A vasopressin produced in the hypothalamus super optic nucleus and stored in the posterior lobe pituitary and it has pleotropic effects

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Oxytosin

Oleo tropic molecules involved with the contraction of the uterus during birth process

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Pheromones

It is the product of a cell of an organism that affect another organism of the Same species, these are ectohormones released to the environment

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VNO

Vomronasal organ in humans and animals very functional in animals

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Allelomones

These are types of pheromones there are two types allomones and kairomones

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Allomones

The donor receives the benefit and the recipient doesn't eg skunk

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Kairomones

The donor doesn't receive the benefit while the recipient does, when humans sweat it attract female Mosquitos due to the production of l lacate in sweat

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Intrakines

This are chemical that are produced within the cell that will affect the activity of the cell

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The secondary messenger in signal transduction are

cAMP,cGMP, ca,IP3

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Exocrine glands secrete

Enzymes especially the ones used for digestion

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The function of mucus

Act as a lubricant. Guards against dehydration,abrasio, and dissolving odorants. It is a unicellular exocrine

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Glycocalyx fuzzy coat

These are glycoproteins secreted or embedded on the surface of the membrane, the carbohydrate chains extend off the cell giving a fuzzy like appearance, this found in only animal cells only

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Packaging and transport of secretion non steroidal

Transcription occurs packaging and transporting occurs at different rate.synthesis and packaging are independent. Except for steroids they can move through the plasma membrane and released outside the cell.

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Steps of synthesis of hormones

A secretory vesicle is formed containing material, trafficking occurs where it is guided to the surface of the cell by specific trafficking protein, the vesicles fuse to the membrane leading to the membrane opening and let out the vesicle by excocytosis. This process is by ATP

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Synthesis of hormones begins

With translation in RER, it is a vase intracellular system and has canal in which the product of the ribosome can be deposited. SER is well developed for production of steroid producing cells.

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The product from RER moves

To the TGN to modify and packaging of the material.

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TGN has three parts

Cis phase initial part, medial phase and trans phase

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House keeper proteins

Manufacture secretory product the budding processes is the formation of the vesicles at the end

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The buddying process of secretory product is done by

TGN coatomer protein which are 7 members be protein that are embedded in the TGN they are connected with ARF

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ARF is a

G protein..

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Trafficking of protein

Is done by the binding of ARF to coatomers and vesicle to were they will be processed dissociation is done by the hydrolysis of the G protein from GDP to GTP

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Folding of protein, congregation of peptides, and condensation occurs in the

TGN

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Modes of secretion

Merocine, apocrine, Holocrine,cytocrine, and cyotgenous

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Metro rinse

Excretions of the secretion by exocytosis into an epithelial walled duct or into the lumen. The gland releases its product and no part of the gland is lost or damaged

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Apocrine secretion

Apex of the cell is involved example epocrine sweat gland. The secretory material aggregates at the apex of the cell then is secreted .. The cell becomes apoptosis

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Eccrine sweat gland are used for

Themoregualtion not apocrine

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Holocrine secretion

The entire cell is the secretion eg sabeseous gland

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Cytocrine secretion

The transfer of secretory materials from one cell to another. Eg the transferring of melanonin to keratinocytes because they do not make their own melanin

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Cyotgenous secretion

This occurs when you have an impact cell, the impart cell actually becomes the secretion eg sex cells

37

Endocrine glands

A group of cell that function to produce or secrets a usable substance, ductless glands, hormones are their products deposited into the blood by fenestrayted capillaries

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Exocrine glands

This have duct that carries the secretion away, the secretory material does not enter into the blood

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Hormones

It has to be a product of an endocrine gland transported by blood, and acts dismally Fromm site of origin on target cells

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Categories of hormones

Steroids from the nucleus, formed from a precursor molecule cholesterol, estrogen, progesterone vitamin , glucocorticoid... proteins and polypeptide , derivatives of tyrosine

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Hormones transported by blood

Water insoluble and soluble

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Water insoluble proteins

Are conjugated with proteins from the liver for transport

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Water soluble hormones

Peptide and catecholamines, dissolve in the plasma and transported by diffusing into interestial fluid eg protein and peptides

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Secretion rate

Determine the level of hormone in the blood

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Metabolic clearance rate

Kidney and liver removes the hormone from the blood, target cells removes the it from the receptor... Basically rate of disappearance of the hormone from the blood

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Location of hormone receptors

Located internally and externally of the membrane, or in the cell or in the nucleus

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Receptor characteristics

Specific, isoforms, saturation, competition, affinity

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Saturation

Given the response of the cell, the amount of the response is regulated,

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Competition

Another substance or agonist can bind to the receptor mucking the responses of the original substance

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Affinity

Some receptor exist in low and high receptor, high quickly binds and low rarely binds but can be forced to

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Down regulation

Reduction of response of the cell overtime which can involve modification of receptor and of the removal of the receptor