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pepsinogen is converted to it active form

through the contact HCl acid to form pepsin

1

pepsin function as

a active proteolytic enzyme in high acid medium. HCL is as necessary as pepsin for protein digestion

2

the secretion of histamine by the ECL is

due to the direct contact of ECL with parietal cells

3

how is ECL stimulated

1 through the production of gastrin by the g cell
2 by the acetylcholine released from the stomach vagal nerve ending , or an hormonal substance secreted by the enteric nervous system.

4

gastrin is secrete by the

the gastric cells or G cells in the pyloric gland located in the distal end of the stomach

5

there are two form off gastrin

G 34 and G 17 , G 17 is more abundant

6

the main stimulus or trigger for the production of G34 and G17

is the presence of amino acid.

7

regulation of chief cells is by

the release of acetylcholine from the vagus nerve and stimulation of chief cell in response to acid in the stomach, affected by the intrinsic nervous system plexus

8

the pancreas lies

parallel to and beneath the stomach

9

pancreatic acini

secretes pancreatic digestive enzyme

10

small ductules and larger duct from the pancreatic acini secret

large volumes of sodium bicarbonate

11

pancreatic duct

where the combination of pancreatic enzyme and sodium bicarbonate flow through that then links with the hepatic duct before emptying into the duodenum through the ampulla vater surrounded by the sphincter of oddi

12

pancreas has two region

endocrine region: islet of langerhans compose of a and B cells produces insulin and glycogen

Exocrine: produces digestive enzyme called pancreatic juices

13

sphincter of oddi

a sphincter regulates the opening of ampulla of vater that empties into the duodenum

14

bicarbonate has the role of

in acidify the chyme from the stomach into the duodenum

15

the three most important pancreatic juices

trpsin, chymotrpisn, carboxypolypeptidase, these work in the small intestine but are produced by the pancreas

16

The pancreatic amylase function is

is digesting carbohydrates by hydrolyzing starch, glycogen, and other carbohydrate except cellulose

17

pancreatic lipase

hydrolyzes neutral fats into fatty acids and monoglycerides

18

all the pancreatic juices are produced in the pancreas but function in the

small intestine

19

Basic stimuli that cause the pancreatic secretion

acetylcholine; released by the PNS vagus nerve ending and other cholinergic nerves in the enteric nervous system .
cck: which is secreted by the duodenal and upper jejunal mucosa when foo enters the the small intestine.
secretin: secreted by the duodenal and jejunal when highly acid food enters the small intestine

20

acetylcholine and cck stimulate

the acinar cells causing production of pancreatic juice

21

secretin stimulate

secretion of large quantities of water solution of bicarbonate

22

Bile formation occurs in the

liver

23

bile contain two compounds

bile salts and bile acid, which helps to emulsify the large fat particles to be attacked by lipase, and aids in the absorption of fat end product through the intestinal mucosa membrane.

24

first stage of bile secretion

the hepatocyte initial secretion contains large amount of bile acids and cholesterol and substance, it is secreted into the bile canaliculi

25

2 stage of bile secretion

the bile flows through the canaliculi and empties into the terminal bile duct, then reaches the hepatic duct and common bile duct, from here the bile empties into the duodenum or divert through the cystic duct into the gallbladder

26

the function of the gallbladder is to

store to the bile produced by the liver

27

bile salt aids in

the digestion of fats and absorption of fats, formation of micelles , breakdown of red blood cells to form bilirubin

28

Jaundice

is caused by the deposit of bilirubin, free or conjugate bilirubin in the extracellular fluid, this lead to the yellowness of body tissues and skin

29

gallstone happen due

to the absorption of too much water