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Flashcards in lecture 11 Deck (47)
0

Renal pressure system occurs

in the JG apparatus of the kidney

1

the JG apparatus are made of 2 cells

macula densa and jxutagolmerula

2

the two cell of the jg apparatus will fire

when the Na levels drop in the blood and release renin into the blood

3

renin cleaves an inactive protein called

angiotensin(a 2 globulin) to the active form angiotensin I

4

Enzyme ACE in the lungs will change

the angiotensin into angiotensin II in the capilary walls of the lungs

5

angiotensin II will go to the adrenal gland (zona glumerarosa ) causing

the release of aldosterone

6

aldosterone goes back to the kindney causing

the absorption of Na and excretion of K in the tubule cells

7

aldosterone is a form of

minerlocorticoid

8

aldosterone play a role in intestinal cells by

causing the enterocytes of the intestine to absorb Na and excrete K

9

aldosterone play a role in salivary gland

as saliva are being produced as it descends through the ducts , Na is absorbed and k is excreted

10

the primary effect of aldosterone is

a genomic effect where it diffuse through the membrane andbind to the cytoplasmic protein. it then goes to the nucleus to activate some sort of transcription factor

11

aldosterone produce two group of protein

1. enzyme
2. transport protein--- the Na/K pump and Na channels to allow Na into the cell

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aldosterone is release due to

decline in Na in the ECF
elevation of K in the ECf
angiotensin is direct activator of aldosterone
ACTH affects the release of aldosterone

13

Glucocorticoid is

a stress hormone, a type of cortisol that affect carbohydrates, protein , lipids and fatty acid

14

glucocorticoid effects on protein

decrease protein synthesis in all cells in the body except the liver
promotes protein synthesis in the liver cells( mainly blood protein to relieve osmotic pressure

15

glucocorticoid effect on fatty acid and lipids

promotes the break down of fatty acid making then available for cellular respiration.
uses fatty acid as primary source of energy even though glucose is being synthesize more.

16

glucocorticoid effect on carbohydrate

primary site of action liver, promote gluconeogenesis , activate genes that promote gluconeogenesis , effect the muscle of other cells leading to the mobilization of amino acid ( brings amino acid to the liver. promotes glycogenesis

17

the buffalo effect

when under stress people gain weight on the face and chest this is because there is a distribution of the receptor in these cells

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cortisol effects on stress is

particularly an anti inflammatory effect

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types of stress

physical stress( damage to body)
various infection
intense heat and cold
surgical procedures
debilitating disease

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stress axis is mediated through the

hypothalamus and the adreno pituitary gland

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4 stages of inflammatory response

redness
swelling
pain
heat

22

damage to tissue release chemical such as

prostaglandins, prostacyclins, glucotriene, thromboxi, interleukin, histamine, and proteolytic enzyme

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chemical release due to damage to tissue usually lead to

the dilation of blood vessels(erthena)

24

capillaries of damage tissue become

more permeable allowing more protein that do not diffuse through the blood vessel to do so. this leads to swelling of the damage tissue because the osmotic pressure has been disrupted. leukocytes will migrate to the damage area and exit capillary

25

cortisol can reduce inflammatory response by

stabilizing the membrane of the lysosome ( will not release proteolytic enzyme) making the cappiliaries less permeable , block white blood cell exit , suppress T and B cells, reduce interleukin I

26

interleukin I is

the main signaling molecule that affects the thermostat of the body located in the hypothalamus. it will increase the temperature of the body

27

regulation of cortisol

there is a long negative loop where cortisol affects the hypothalamus directly or short loop where it affects the anterior pituitary

28

CRH ( cortisol releasing hormone)

has a genomic effect on the pituitary , the activated gene causes the synthesis of POMC

29

POMC

prehormone, will be cleaves by enzyme prohormone convertase I into 4 different hormone..... ACTH, a MSH, endorphin , B-lipotopin, ACTH activates a second messenger (cAMP) in the adrenal cells

30

hypoadrenalism

under secretion of adrenal hormones
ex addisin disease

31

hyperadrenalism

over secretion of adrenal hormones ex cushing syndrome and adrenal genital syndrome

32

addisin's disease

can be cause by trauma, tumor around cells, autoimmune destruction of cells. can cause pigmentation problem particularly on the lips. the abnormal levels of ACTH is the cause of excessive pigmentation, can cause a drop in mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids

33

cushing syndrome

caused by hyper secretion of cortisol and occasionally aldosterone, which will cause too much Na and water to be maintained and too much ka is excreted leading to blood volume going up

34

adrenal genital syndrom

over active zona reticularis, over production of androgen can affect both sex resulting in early development

35

Adrenal medulla

the center zone of the adrenal gland , there are modified post sympathetic neuron that have lost their fibers, but still maintain the function of sympathetic nervous system

36

the adrenal medulla produces

nor- epinephrine and epinephrine but have tyrosine precursor, they stored in vesicle linked to chromogranin

37

chromogranin are

are acidic protein that bind to N.E and E to keep them inactive

38

N methyl transferase

converts E to N.E b than place back into vesicle because one E is produced in the cells , the enzyme is located the cytoplasm and conversion is the cytoplasm

39

NE and Epinephrine are

fight flight and fright hormones
anything that activate the sympathetic NS can activate them
cause increase heart rate , contractility , dilation of air way,promote glucogenolysis in the live, promote break down of glucose , promote break down of fat and are escape hormone

40

insulin and glucogon are produce in

the pancreas

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exocrine pancreas produce

enzyme for digestion( pancreatic enzymes)

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endocrine pancrease

islet of langerhann , collection of cell type( beta, alpha, and delta) the cells types are well vascular, fenestrated capillaries to aid release of hormone

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alpha cells of the islet of langerhann is responsible for producing

glucogon and it make up 10 % of the islet

44

beta cells of the islet of the langerhann produces

insulin and make up 60% the islet

45

excluding insulin and glucogon the pancreas also produces

amalin
pancreatic polypeptide
somatostain

46

the delat cells of the islet of langerhann make

10% of the islet