Lecture 10: Person Perception Flashcards Preview

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What are personal attributions?

Heider 1958:
*Attribution to internal characteristics of a person (ability, personality, mood, effort).


What are situation attributions?

Heider 1958:
*Attribution to factors external to a person (the task, other people, luck).


What is Kelly's 1967 theory of the attribution theory?

*People make personal or situational attributions based on three factors:
Does the person usually behave this way in this situation? (Does the mother beat this child more often?) YES = INTERNAL
Does the person behave differently in different situations (Is this the only child she beats?) NO = INTERNAL
Do others behave similarly in this situation?
(Do other people beat this child?) NO = INTERNAL


What is the Fundamental Attribution error?

*According to Ross (1977)
*The tendency to underestimate the impact of situational factors on other people's behaviour.
Parents are surprised that their child usually naughty at home, is so friendly at school.


Why does the fundamental Attribution error occur?

*People have an impulsive tendency to accept what they encounter as true.
*Culture teaches us to commit to FAE.
*Dispositions in behaviour are caused by a perception bias.


What did Lassiter et al 1986 find about FAE?

*Participants saw a police interview with a suspect. The suspect confessed.
*One group saw only the detective, the other group saw only the suspect. Both groups could hear suspect and detective.
*to what extent was the suspect coerced into a confession according to the participants.
*Participants were more likely to be coerced if the detective was visible compared to when the suspect was visible.


What two biases are there to do with FAE.

*Fae is a bias in explaining somebody else's behaviour.
*Self - serving bias is a bias in explaining our own behaviour. Tendency to attribute success to ourselves and failures to others or to the situation.


What are the results of the self - serving bias?

*Most business people see themselves as more ethical than average business people.
*86% of the people rate their job performance as above average.
*Most people see themselves as less prejudiced than others in the community.
*Most drivers believe themselves to be safer and more skilled than the average driver.
*Most people perceive themselves as more intelligent than their average peer.
*Most college students believe they will outlive their predicted age by about 10.


What is a special form of self - serving bias?

*Blaming people for their own misfortunes (blaming the victim).
*unemployed people are lazy
*Traffic victims are careless drivers.


What reasons are there for blaming the victim?

*Self protection - if victims can't influence own misfortunes, i can be the next victim.
*Fundamental Attribution Error - underestimation of external factors.


What is self - efficacy?

*Bandura 1986
*A sense that someone is competent and effective.


What is learned helplessness?

*Talking away responsibility leads to passive behaviour.


What is locus of control?

*It refers to the extent to which individuals believe they can control events affecting them.


What did Rodin et al's 1977 study find about learned helplessness?

*In an old people's home pensioners were given plants.
*Half of group was asked to water these plants themselves
*How happy were the pensioners after 3 weeks?
- the ones who were told to water their own plants had a more positive mood compared to those who did not water own plants.
*What was the mortality rate after 2 years?
- The mortality rate was higher for those who did not water own plants compared to those who did water their own plants.