Lecture 3: Freud & Psychoanalysis Flashcards Preview

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What is the historical context behind psychopathology?

*The middle ages: inmates usually referred as poore or prisoners rather than patients.
*Earliest explanations thought of psychopathology as possession by bad spirits.
*This view of mental health problems existed until the 19th century this is when studying psychopathology began scientifically and compassionately.
- Sought humane approaches.
- Physical punishment banned.
*Hospitals became tourists attractions. Visitors paid to come and view the insane and could purchase sticks to poke at inmates.
*Later 1800s - syphilis found to be a cause of insanity.
- May have medical or biological explanations.
- Led to the view that illnesses could be treated through medication.


What problems were there with the medical model?

*Lots of disorders do not have biological causes.
*Too simplistic
*Not the case that something is broken and needs to be fixed.


What is Social Darwinism?

*Theories claiming the application of biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics.
- Advocate the lifting of social protection measures.
- Advocate abandonments of charitable activities.


Who was Francis Galton?

*He discovered the concept of anticyclone and ultrasound.
*Looks for a way to improve lineages and scientifically select the elite of humanity.
*Inspires and disseminates eugenics ideology which was the policy basis of racial hygiene and Nazism.


What was Freud's contributions to psychoanalysis?

*Treatment for mental disorders
*Ground breaking: theory derived from clinical practise and careful observation.
*Personalities arise because of attempts to resolve conflicts between unconscious impulses and societal demands.


What is consciousness?

*According to Freud the primary influences on behaviour are unconsciousness drives, especially sexuality and aggression.
*These unconscious impulses sometimes break through into consciousness (Freudian slips).


What did Freud say about Personality?

According to Freud, the human psyche consists of three components, always in dynamic conflict.
- The ego: decision maker
- The Superego: Moral standards
- The ID: Primary process thinking; primary instincts.


What did Freud say about conflict?

*Healthy personality keeps all 3 systems in balance.
*Constant tension/conflict between the 3 forces.
-ID making demands
-The superego denying the ID satisfaction
-The ego trying to satisfy the ID and the superego.
*Internal conflicts -> Pose threat to ego -> Anxiety
*In order to protect ego and defend against feelings of anxiety we have defence mechanisms.


How does personality develop?

*Personality solidifies during childhood.
*Freud proposed that children progress through psychosexual stages to have an healthy personality.
*Concept of fixation: An inability to progress from one stage to another.
*Result of fixation affects personality in adulthood.


What are the 5 psycholsexual stages that freud proposed?

Stage Approx age: Source of pleasure
1) Oral 0-12 months Mouth: eating, sucking, biting, chewing.
2) Anal: 1-3 years Anal region/bowel movements
3) Phallic: 3-6 year Genitals
4) Latency 6 years-puberty Sexuality is latent during this stage
5) Genitals: Puberty onwards Genitals


What are the Consequences of fixation in adulthood?

Oral - Risk of addiction and obesity. egocentric, dependance on others.
Anal - Anal retentive: overly controlling, pedantic, obsessively organised/neat or anal expulsive: irresponsible, unreliable, messy, easily angered, defiant.
Phallic - Guilt or anxiety about sex (oedipus complex/electra complex).
Latency - Suppressed/repressed sexual feelings.


What did Freud say about psychoanalysis?

*Unpleasant memories are repressed and fuse with other unconscious material into complexes.
*However, this material can become conscious but always transformed in such a way that its original content is concealed.
*Dream expresses the repressed materials symbolically.
Thus dreams need to be interpreted.


What was Freud's approach to treatment?

*Because patients were not aware of these unconscious materials, the job of the psychoanalyst was to uncover them and bring them into conscious awareness, thus resolving the dysfunction.
*Use of free association.


What is the Standard History of Freud?

*His main focus was on treating the causes of hysteria.
*Hysteria referred to any disorder where the patient experiences physical symptoms that have a psychological rather than an organic cause.
*Symptoms: fainting, nervousness, muscle spasms, irritability, insomnia, loss of appetite, fluid retention.
*Freud believed that female hysteria was caused by repressed memories of sexual assaults suffered by patients when they were children (the seduction hypothesis).
*The goal of the therapy was to convert unconsciousness memories of infantile scenes into consciousness recollection.
*Freud argued that his discovery of the link between sexual abuse in childhood and hysteria was the source of the nile (the source from which all psychological problems spring).


What is the Revised History of Freud?

*Freud did not uncover memories in his patients.
*What he recorded of his therapy sessions were not the memories of the patients rather it was his interpretation of their memories.


What was the case of Dora Bauer?

*Difficulty breathing
*Depression avoidance of social contact
*threatens suicide
*fainting spells
*loss of voice
*Freud claimed that unwanted sexual advances made my a family friend Herr K was a trigger for these hysterical symptoms
*Freud reconstituted these advances as phantasies (Dora just imagined them)
*Dora denied this and insisted they occurred.
*Freud considered her rejection of Herr K and her symptoms in general, as evidence of Dora's infantile affection for her father as well as a latent bisexuality. the fact that Dora repeatedly denied his interpretation only confirmed to Freud that he was correct. Freud even informed Dora that No might well mean Yes.
*Dora stopped going to see Freud fro treatment.


What is the pressure technique?

*Freud's interpretations were not simply theories he tested out but rather firmly held a priori conviction about what must be at the root of a patient's problem.
*he insisted that his
*he believed that his pressure technique was justified because his patients often resisted the idea that they had been abused/


What are false and recovered memories?

*Cases where adults, following some kind of therapy, would allege that they had been sexually abused by their parents.
*Claimed that they had no knowledge of the abuse before therapy because they had repressed the memory.
*Proponents argued that this was Freudian repression in action.


What criticisms are there with Epistemological?

*No scientific approach (issue of falsifiability)
*Methodological issues (unreliable case studies, subjective interpretations).
*Theoretical incoherence.
*Data manipulation.


Who was Carl Jung?

**Key Post Freudian.
*Famously coined the phrase 'collective unconscious'.
*Popularise the terms introversion vs extraversion.
*Concept of individuation: the process of integrating and balancing the opposites.
*Theory influenced by religion, mythology, alchemy.


Who was Alfred Adler?

*Famously coined the phrase 'inferiority complex'.
*Single motivating force: Drive to establish a sense of superiority.
*Founder of individual psychology.
*Argue in favour of equality in preventing various forms of psychopathology.
*Espoused the development of democratic family structures for raising children.
*Argue in favour of feminism and the dynamics of power between men and women.


What influence did Alfred Adler say that Parents & birth order have?

*Greater emphasis on role of parental behaviours in personality development.
-Robs child of independance & adds to feelings of inferiority.
-Child grows up cold and suspicious.
-Unable to form warm personal relationships & uncomfortable with intimacy.


Who was Karen Horney?

**Key Post Freudian.
*Opening out the individual's social and cultural towards background.
*Significant emphasis on the effect of parental indifference towards the child.


Who was Harry Stack Sullivan?

**Key Post Freudian.
*Famously coined the phrase 'significant other'.
*Anxiety also a central concept - arises from social insecurity.
*Developed the 'self system' - personality traits developed in childhood to avoid anxiety and reinforced by positive affirmation.
*Characterised loneliness as the most painful of human experiences.
*Defined personality in terms of how an individual deals with other personality.
*Emphasised the 'interactional' over the 'intrapsychic'


Who was Melanie Klein?

**Key Post Freudian
*Leading British Psychoanalyst, co - founder of object relations theory.
*Devising therapeutic techniques techniques for children.
*Children therapeutic techniques for children.
*Children construct internal objects and project them on to others - use to interpret relationships.
*Concept of splitting: good (gratifications) vs bad (tensions).
-Child learns to integrate good and bad aspects of self and other.


Who was Anna Freud?

**Key Post Freudian
*Emphasises the capacity of the ego to be trained socially and transform unacceptable impulses.


Who was Hermann Rorschach?

**Key Post Freudian.
*Best known for developing a projective test known as the Rorschach inkblot test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning.


Who was Wilhelm Reich?

**Key Post Freudian
*Shaped innovations such as body psychotherapy, Vegetotherapy, Gestalt therapy, bioenergetics analysis and primal therapy.
*'The mass psychology of fascism' explains fascism rise as a symptom of sexual repression.
*The influence of economics and social conditions on neurosis.


Who was Erich Fromm?

**Key Post Freudian
*Strong marxist influences: - a dynamic rather than static view of society.
*Society not only suppresses, it also creates human nature.
*Fear of freedom - Humans can work towards together to meet needs of humanity and promote optimal personality develop. Or, they can 'escape from the burden' of freedom.


Who was Erik Erikson?

**Key Post Freudian
*Famously coined the phrase 'identity crisis'
*psycho - social life stage virtues, each associated with crises: hope (0-1), will (1-3), purpose (3-6), competence (6-11),fidelity (12-18), love (18-35), caring(35-64), Wisdom (65-).
*Stressed the role of the ego as being more than a servant of the id.
*Ego identity enables each person to have a sense of individuality.