Lecture 18: Individual difference, intelligence Flashcards Preview

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What is the Individual Differences approach?

*It is an approach or a method, it is NOT A TOPIC.
*Every man is in certain respects
- like all other men
- Like some other men
- Like no other man


What does Cognitive Psychology say about intelligence?

*Assumes intelligence comprises a set of:
- mental representations of information
-Operating process
*A more intelligent person will have better representation of information and can operate them faster.
*Intelligence is associated with convergent thinking.
*Creativity is associated with divergent thinking.


What does the General Capacity Approach (Uni - factor) say about intelligence?

*Intelligence is the general capacity that manifests itself in various ways.
/Binet's test contained many types of items (memory span, arithmetic skills and vocabulary knowledge).
*David Wechsler (1896 - 1981) agreed. Some children scored higher than others on all items.


What does the Factorial Approach (Multifactor) say about intelligence?

*Louis Thurstone (1887 - 1955)
*7 factors
1) Verbal communication - The ability to understand the meaning of words, vocabulary tests represent this factor.
2) Word Fluency - The ability to think of words rapidly, as in solving anagrams or thinking of words that rhyme.
3) Number - The ability to work with numbers and perform computations.
4) Space - The ability to visualise space form relationship, as in recognising the figures presented in different orientations.
5) Memory - The ability to recall verbal stimuli, such as word pairs or sentences.
6) Perceptual speed - The ability to grasp details quickly and to see similarities and differences between objects.
7) Reasoning - The ability to find a general rule on the basis of presented instances, as in determining how a number series is constructed after being presented with only a portion of that series.


What problems are there with Thurstone's factors?

*Predictive power no greater than general intelligence
*Correlations between factors.
*Other researchers found 20 to 150 factors.
*Lack of consistency.
*Validity of factorial approach to intelligence.


What is the Middle Ground, Two factor theory?

*Spearman (1904)
- G factor - General psychophysiological intelligence
- S factor - A collection of specific cognitive intellectual skills.
*School children's grades across seemingly unrelated subjects - positively correlated.
*Model - al variation in intelligence test explained by two factors.


How can G intelligence be divided?

*Fluid intelligence (Gf)
- Reasoning ability, memory capacity, speed of information processing.
- Involves spatial and visual imagery.
- Believed to be less affected by experience and education.
*Crystallized intelligence (Gc)
- Application of knowledge to problem solving.
- Verbal and numerical skills
- Believed to be affected by experience & formal education.
- Relies on long term memory (a Gf).


What did Vernon (1979) say about intelligence?

*Intelligence A (Similar to Gf)
- Basic potential of the organism to learn and adapt to environment.
- Determined by genes.
- Mediated by complexity and plasticity of central nervous system.
*Intelligence B (Similar to Gc)
- Level of ability that shows in behaviour - cleverness.
- Efficiency and complexity of perceptions, learning, thinking and problem solving.
- Not genetic.
- Product of interplay between genetic potential and environmental stimulation.
*Vernon elaborated
- Intelligence C, what manifests on tests ability.


What was Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence?

*Not test score driven
*Developmental/educational research driven
*Multi factor theory
*Proposes 7 intelligences (1983) - divided intelligence into seven abilities.
- Linguistic - Use words and language which is highly developed auditory skill.
- Logistical - mathematical: Manipulate the environment to experiment in controlled way. Skilled is reasoning and problem solving.
- Spatial - Navigating spatially; forming, transforming, and using mental images.
- Musical - Perceiving and creating rhythm and pitch patterns.
- Bodily - Kinesthetic - Motor coordination and movement skills.
- Intrapersonal - know thyself.
- Interpersonal - effective communicators, understand people and keep good relations.
*Equally important, value in particular culture varies.
*E. G. People living off land value bodily - kinesthetic more than logical mathematical.
*Believed schools should foster all intelligences.


Where does the theory of intelligence stand now?

*Education - testing goes in and out of fashion.
*1924, Hadow Report endorsed use of IQ tests.
*Highest point - 11+ from 1950s to the 1960s.
*Social fairness & differing maturation
*21stC - SATs (teachers)
*Disentangling aptitude + attainment.
*Back to roots - identify children needing special education.
*Tests don't use intelligence age, compare against norms.
*Predictors of achievement in school = 40 to 60 (Sattler 1988).
*Achievement outside academic world.
*Intelligence tests reached ceiling - computers (Sternberg & Wagner, 1986).