Lecture 16: Emotional Development Flashcards Preview

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What are Ekman's basic emotions?

*(1992), outlines characteristics of basic emotions:
- Disgust
- Anger
- Surprise
- Contempt/Joy
- Fear
- Sadness
*Debated: Ekman models are trained. Feeling no emotions. Spontaneous - Feeling the emotions.


What develops in first years of Life?

*Born with minimal expression & feelings.
*Infant expressions are not equivalent to adult expressions.
*Interest licking and sucking.
*It is clear that expressions are in response to stimuli, but are not in response to social stimuli.
*Neonatal emotional expressions interacts with socialisation from birth in chimpanzees.
*Peek- a - boo with a 4 month human infant from UK. - Emotional engagement with tickles and laughs. Lots of mutual gaze. By 3 months, happiness clearly linked with social stimuli.
*fears to certain events develop around 7-9 months. *Emotional communication - social referencing.


How are fetal facial expressions displayed?

*1 facial movement @ 24 weeks - at 32wk see gestalts of laughter/cry.
*4D ultrasounds visualisation reveals details of facial movement.
*Expressions evident but not linked with stimuli.


What is happiness in the first years of life?

*Duchenne Smiles = felt smiles.
*Digitally manipulated baby faces to include AU6 (or not).
*Found people rated happy expressions as more happy.
*Distress expressions as more distressed if AU6 is present.


What is Anger in the first years of life?

*Components of the anger face may be present in cry faces of young infants.
*But anger faces are readily identifiable by 4 months and more clear by 7 months.
*Often emotion is defined by experimental context:
-Response to restraint (up to 3 min)
-Response to biscuit taken away & held out of reach.
*Anger develops across the first year of life in human and chimpanzee infants.
*Older v Younger infants express more anger and in a wider variety of circumstances.
* Seems to be an adaptive response
- Defend self or overcome obstacles.
- Expressing anger motivates caretakers to alleviate distress to not cause them distress.
*Discrete emotion of anger - same test given to two groups of nursery - reared chimpanzees.
*More infant chimpanzees show mad face when reared in responsive care compared to standard care.


What is sadness in the first year of life?

*Infants less often sad than angry.
*but often sad in contexts of breaks of interpersonal connectedness.


What emotions are developed further in childhood and adolescence?

*Smiling through the tears
*Putting on a brave face
*more complex/blended/mixed emotions & expressions are developed as they get older.
*with development of inhibitory control
*develops after understanding display rules & how to violate them.


What is empathy?

*an emotional state triggered by another's emotional state (2008);mature form= awareness of self & other; usually pro social.

*Different Modes
- Automatic & occur preverbally mimicry
- Conditioning association
- More cognitive - verbally mediated association - perspective taking.

*helping, sharing, sympathising with another's distress.


What is Hoffmans developmental theory of empathy?

*Developed theory of empathy. Children distinguish among causes of distress and respond differently.
*global empathic distress: newborn reactive cry - stops by 6months
*Egocentric empathetic distress (11-12 months) motive to reduce own distress caused by another's distress.
*Quasi - egocentric empathetic distress (13-14 months) - attempt to calm other by giving other something that calms self. Develops into sympathetic distress - desire to help other in distress.
*Veridical empathy - (24 months with MSR) - empathise with awareness, take others perspective, help appropriately this matures with growing awareness of causes, correlates & consequences of others distress.

(Infants like helping because of their socialisation not because of genes)


What are self - conscious emotions?

*they develop around 18-24 months.
*embarrassment - negative feelings - show off the self.
*This type of emotion requires self concept and varies with socialisation experiences.

-- they become aware of themselves away from others.


What is attachment?

*An enduring emotional bond
- between baby and specific, significant other.
*infants seek proximity
*infants are distressed in absence
*infants are happy when reunited after separation.
*infants orient action & attention to attachment figure.
*emotional bond from 3 months
*infants 7-9 months differentiate mother from stranger
*show preference for mother & wariness of stranger usually tested around 12 months when locomotion occurs.


Why did Freud argue that attachment occurs?

*Cupboard theory (drive reduction explanation)
*need for the mother is primary
*1st love object is the breast.


Why did Erikson argue that attachment occurs?

*psychological explanation
*infants bond with people with whom they develop trust.


Why did Bowlby argue that attachment occurs?

*evolutionary explanation
*built in tendency to seek contact with caregiver protection from predators.
*based on ethnological study of monkeys
*observations of children separated from parents (protest, despair, detachment)
*Evidence - supported by numerous separation studies. Caregivers offer protection to infants.


What ethological views on attachment are there?

*pre attachment phase - (birth to 6 weeks) baby sends and receives signals. Recognition of caregiver, but no true attachment.
*attachment in the making - (6 weeks to 8 months) infants respond differently to familiar caregivers develop sense of trust.
*clear cut attachment - (6/8 months to 18/24 months) separation anxiety. Maintain proximity to caregiver. Secure base.
*Formation of reciprocal relationship - (18/24 months to older) increased understanding & representational ability, tolerate separations, predict return, internal working model- set of expectations


What are the problems with the attachment theory?

1) stability of attachment
*Changes with life events.
*Can be different with mother vs father in western cultures.
*mother - quiet play, more smiles, security/comfort
*father - physical play, more laughter, playmate.
2) implications of early separation from mother
*bowlby - separation is psychologically dangerous
- continuity in primary attachment vital
*Clarke - Stewart found that good nursery increases social competences, cognitive development, and independence.
*Belsky - Vaughn however say nursery increases insecure but quality of nursery care is the important factor.
3) No attachment - how can infants survive?
*motherless monkeys - raised with surrogate/ in isolation.