Flashcards in Lecture 16: Emotional Development Deck (16)
What are Ekman's basic emotions?
*(1992), outlines characteristics of basic emotions:
*Debated: Ekman models are trained. Feeling no emotions. Spontaneous - Feeling the emotions.
What develops in first years of Life?
*Born with minimal expression & feelings.
*Infant expressions are not equivalent to adult expressions.
*Interest licking and sucking.
*It is clear that expressions are in response to stimuli, but are not in response to social stimuli.
*Neonatal emotional expressions interacts with socialisation from birth in chimpanzees.
*Peek- a - boo with a 4 month human infant from UK. - Emotional engagement with tickles and laughs. Lots of mutual gaze. By 3 months, happiness clearly linked with social stimuli.
*fears to certain events develop around 7-9 months. *Emotional communication - social referencing.
How are fetal facial expressions displayed?
*1 facial movement @ 24 weeks - at 32wk see gestalts of laughter/cry.
*4D ultrasounds visualisation reveals details of facial movement.
*Expressions evident but not linked with stimuli.
What is happiness in the first years of life?
*Duchenne Smiles = felt smiles.
*Digitally manipulated baby faces to include AU6 (or not).
*Found people rated happy expressions as more happy.
*Distress expressions as more distressed if AU6 is present.
What is Anger in the first years of life?
*Components of the anger face may be present in cry faces of young infants.
*But anger faces are readily identifiable by 4 months and more clear by 7 months.
*Often emotion is defined by experimental context:
-Response to restraint (up to 3 min)
-Response to biscuit taken away & held out of reach.
*Anger develops across the first year of life in human and chimpanzee infants.
*Older v Younger infants express more anger and in a wider variety of circumstances.
* Seems to be an adaptive response
- Defend self or overcome obstacles.
- Expressing anger motivates caretakers to alleviate distress to not cause them distress.
*Discrete emotion of anger - same test given to two groups of nursery - reared chimpanzees.
*More infant chimpanzees show mad face when reared in responsive care compared to standard care.
What is sadness in the first year of life?
*Infants less often sad than angry.
*but often sad in contexts of breaks of interpersonal connectedness.
What emotions are developed further in childhood and adolescence?
*Smiling through the tears
*Putting on a brave face
*more complex/blended/mixed emotions & expressions are developed as they get older.
*with development of inhibitory control
*develops after understanding display rules & how to violate them.
What is empathy?
*an emotional state triggered by another's emotional state (2008);mature form= awareness of self & other; usually pro social.
- Automatic & occur preverbally mimicry
- Conditioning association
- More cognitive - verbally mediated association - perspective taking.
*helping, sharing, sympathising with another's distress.
What is Hoffmans developmental theory of empathy?
*Developed theory of empathy. Children distinguish among causes of distress and respond differently.
*global empathic distress: newborn reactive cry - stops by 6months
*Egocentric empathetic distress (11-12 months) motive to reduce own distress caused by another's distress.
*Quasi - egocentric empathetic distress (13-14 months) - attempt to calm other by giving other something that calms self. Develops into sympathetic distress - desire to help other in distress.
*Veridical empathy - (24 months with MSR) - empathise with awareness, take others perspective, help appropriately this matures with growing awareness of causes, correlates & consequences of others distress.
(Infants like helping because of their socialisation not because of genes)
What are self - conscious emotions?
*they develop around 18-24 months.
*embarrassment - negative feelings - show off the self.
*This type of emotion requires self concept and varies with socialisation experiences.
-- they become aware of themselves away from others.
What is attachment?
*An enduring emotional bond
- between baby and specific, significant other.
*infants seek proximity
*infants are distressed in absence
*infants are happy when reunited after separation.
*infants orient action & attention to attachment figure.
*emotional bond from 3 months
*infants 7-9 months differentiate mother from stranger
*show preference for mother & wariness of stranger usually tested around 12 months when locomotion occurs.
Why did Freud argue that attachment occurs?
*Cupboard theory (drive reduction explanation)
*need for the mother is primary
*1st love object is the breast.
Why did Erikson argue that attachment occurs?
*infants bond with people with whom they develop trust.
Why did Bowlby argue that attachment occurs?
*built in tendency to seek contact with caregiver protection from predators.
*based on ethnological study of monkeys
*observations of children separated from parents (protest, despair, detachment)
*Evidence - supported by numerous separation studies. Caregivers offer protection to infants.
What ethological views on attachment are there?
*pre attachment phase - (birth to 6 weeks) baby sends and receives signals. Recognition of caregiver, but no true attachment.
*attachment in the making - (6 weeks to 8 months) infants respond differently to familiar caregivers develop sense of trust.
*clear cut attachment - (6/8 months to 18/24 months) separation anxiety. Maintain proximity to caregiver. Secure base.
*Formation of reciprocal relationship - (18/24 months to older) increased understanding & representational ability, tolerate separations, predict return, internal working model- set of expectations