Flashcards in Lecture 15: Development of the Self Deck (16)
What is the developmental perspective?
*intersted in change with age.
*within social - cultural environments.
*Interested in infancy.
What are social responses?
*treating mirror image as social partner, ambiguous emotional displays, aggressive displays, shy or coy reactions.
*typically found in 6 months in western cultures.
*found in older individuals. Initial responses when mirror niave, initially when unaware of a mirror.
*social behaviour giving objects and giving commands.
What is self directed responses?
*watching in mirror while touching self or use mirror image to explore self.
*found early as 15 months.
*typcially not counted as self aware, not definitive, not localised..
What is self awareness?
*mirror guided mark touching self label.
*mirror self recognition.
*typically found at 18-24 months on western cultures.
What does passing the mark and mirror test mean?
*develolment of sense of self.
*that an autonomous intentional agent has emerged.
*modt parsimonious - MSR indicates kinesthetic visual matching.
*most rich - capacity to introspect and reflect on own mental state.
*MSR captures some aspect of mental representations (MR) of the self cognitive capacity for secondary representation.
*mental representation of self V reflected image.
*Evidence - MSR correlated with other tasks requiring MR - pretend play.
*MSR linked with empathy & theory of mind.
*empathy linked with MSR.
What is the evidence link for MSR and Empathy Link?
*Recognisers = awareness of mark.
*Transitionals = strong avoidance of mirror some identified mark but not consistently.
*Nonrecognisers = image treated as playmate search behind mirror.
*Helpers all identified mark SR is necessary, but not sufficient , condition for Empathy.
How is the self other distinction relevant to MSR and empathy?
*it occurs after the development of the correct use of the word 'ME'.
*'ME' indicates that the self can have an outside appearance - that self can be seen in the mirror.
*'YOU' is the symbolic representation of other persons.
*the self other distinction is not just physical or psychological.
What is the Phylogeny Argument?
*Chimpanzees solve Kohler's task based on true mental problem solving.
*this can't be accomplished without a truce mental representation of the self to move around in imaginary space.
Do Monkeys pass the MSR test?
*No because they do not recognise their self image in mirror.
*they can understand however, that the mirror reflects the world.
*but chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas do pass. Therefore, self awareness evolved since split from monkeys.
What is the Mirror self recognition test?
*index of self awareness. Mark test - objective gold standard of cognitive capacity.
*evolutionary history- monkeys don't pass, but chimpanzees and humans do.
*develolment- humans pass around 24 months of age. Chimpanzees pass around 28months of age.
What was Bard, Todd, Bernier, love & Leavens (2006) infancy study?
*replication of Lin et al (1990) with chimpanzees infants focus on infants from 19 - 30 months.
*Human children - group testing
- a 15 month group (too young to to show (MSR)
-a 24 month group (all should show MSR).
-overt application of mark
-15-20 min to observe spontaneous behaviour.
-Martial prompts, who's that? Can you wipe the make - up? false negative - mark doll and can you wipe the make up.
At what age do humans and chimpanzees show onset mirror behaviours?
*monitoring contingency of own movements and image: humans - 15 months, Chimpanzees - 19 months
*Using mirror image to guide self directed behaviours: humans - 15 months, Chimpanzees - 19 months.
*Using the mirror image to locate the mark: humans - 18 months, Chimpanzees - 28 months.
What is the effect of different testing methods?
*Mother prompts the human infant: Who's that? while pointing in the mirror.
*This spontaneous behaviour was observed.
*Human infants may engage in MSR behaviours in absence of prompts.
*Maternally prompted face wiping:
-mostly to nose, cheeks and mouth
-not mirror guided.
Does maternal scaffolding enhance MSR?
*enhances mg touches close to mark in both age groups.
*enhances in 24 months but not in 15 months.
*24 month olds recognised self when prompted by mother.
What is mirror recognition?
*similar development in chimpanzees and humans
*same developmental patterns
*similar age of passing the mark test
*Importance of looking at the target behaviour
-Human children even at 24 months, have difficulty touching the mark - especially while looking in the mirror.
-Chimpanzees, although somewhat delayed in acquiring the behaviour, touch the marked area with precision.