Lecture 15: Development of the Self Flashcards Preview

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What is the developmental perspective?

*intersted in change with age.
*within social - cultural environments.
*Interested in infancy.


What are social responses?

*treating mirror image as social partner, ambiguous emotional displays, aggressive displays, shy or coy reactions.
*typically found in 6 months in western cultures.
*found in older individuals. Initial responses when mirror niave, initially when unaware of a mirror.
*social behaviour giving objects and giving commands.


What is self directed responses?

*watching in mirror while touching self or use mirror image to explore self.
*found early as 15 months.
*typcially not counted as self aware, not definitive, not localised..


What is self awareness?

*mirror guided mark touching self label.
*mirror self recognition.
*typically found at 18-24 months on western cultures.


What does passing the mark and mirror test mean?

*develolment of sense of self.
*objective self
*categorical self
*that an autonomous intentional agent has emerged.
*modt parsimonious - MSR indicates kinesthetic visual matching.
*most rich - capacity to introspect and reflect on own mental state.
*MSR captures some aspect of mental representations (MR) of the self cognitive capacity for secondary representation.
*mental representation of self V reflected image.
*Evidence - MSR correlated with other tasks requiring MR - pretend play.
*MSR linked with empathy & theory of mind.
*empathy linked with MSR.


What is the evidence link for MSR and Empathy Link?

*Recognisers = awareness of mark.
*Transitionals = strong avoidance of mirror some identified mark but not consistently.
*Nonrecognisers = image treated as playmate search behind mirror.
*Helpers all identified mark SR is necessary, but not sufficient , condition for Empathy.


How is the self other distinction relevant to MSR and empathy?

*it occurs after the development of the correct use of the word 'ME'.
*'ME' indicates that the self can have an outside appearance - that self can be seen in the mirror.
*'YOU' is the symbolic representation of other persons.
*the self other distinction is not just physical or psychological.


What is the Phylogeny Argument?

*Chimpanzees solve Kohler's task based on true mental problem solving.
*this can't be accomplished without a truce mental representation of the self to move around in imaginary space.


Do Monkeys pass the MSR test?

*No because they do not recognise their self image in mirror.
*they can understand however, that the mirror reflects the world.
*but chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas do pass. Therefore, self awareness evolved since split from monkeys.


What is the Mirror self recognition test?

*index of self awareness. Mark test - objective gold standard of cognitive capacity.
*evolutionary history- monkeys don't pass, but chimpanzees and humans do.
*develolment- humans pass around 24 months of age. Chimpanzees pass around 28months of age.


What was Bard, Todd, Bernier, love & Leavens (2006) infancy study?

*replication of Lin et al (1990) with chimpanzees infants focus on infants from 19 - 30 months.
*Human children - group testing
- a 15 month group (too young to to show (MSR)
-a 24 month group (all should show MSR).
*Procedure -
-Free play
-overt application of mark
-15-20 min to observe spontaneous behaviour.
-Martial prompts, who's that? Can you wipe the make - up? false negative - mark doll and can you wipe the make up.


At what age do humans and chimpanzees show onset mirror behaviours?

*monitoring contingency of own movements and image: humans - 15 months, Chimpanzees - 19 months
*Using mirror image to guide self directed behaviours: humans - 15 months, Chimpanzees - 19 months.
*Using the mirror image to locate the mark: humans - 18 months, Chimpanzees - 28 months.


What is the effect of different testing methods?

*Mother prompts the human infant: Who's that? while pointing in the mirror.
*This spontaneous behaviour was observed.
*Human infants may engage in MSR behaviours in absence of prompts.
*Maternally prompted face wiping:
-mostly to nose, cheeks and mouth
-not mirror guided.


Does maternal scaffolding enhance MSR?

*enhances mg touches close to mark in both age groups.
*enhances in 24 months but not in 15 months.
*24 month olds recognised self when prompted by mother.


What is mirror recognition?

*similar development in chimpanzees and humans
*same developmental patterns
*similar age of passing the mark test
*Importance of looking at the target behaviour
-Human children even at 24 months, have difficulty touching the mark - especially while looking in the mirror.
-Chimpanzees, although somewhat delayed in acquiring the behaviour, touch the marked area with precision.


What was concluded?

*MSR = self awareness
*Combining development and comparative perspectives - development process shared by child and chimp shared pattern.
*Monkeys have social responses to mirror image and understanding of mirrors properties but no contingency and no mirror guided touches.
*Necessary & sufficient cognitive pre - conditions
- understanding of mirror is necessary not sufficient
-Exploration of contingency development path to self - awareness.