Lecture 11.2 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy: Human Locomotor Systems > Lecture 11.2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 11.2 Deck (25):

Where are non-human primates typically found?

South America, Africa, and South East Asia


How long ago did primates begin to exist?

primates branched out from other mammals 63 million years ago.


What is the difference between new world and old world?

New world is the world with split continents. Old world is the world before it split


How long ago did humans diverge from monkeys?

Humans split away from monkey about 6 million years ago


How long did old world monkeys diverge?

Old world monkeys diverged 23 million years ago.


What are the different types of locomotion in different species?

Lemurs and Tarsius are vertical clingers and leapers. They use their hind limbs to leap from tree to tree but cling on to trees with their hands.

New world monkeys are semibrachiators using upper limbs to swing beneath branches and also their tails.

Old world monkeys are known as quadrupeds using all fours and swing under the trees.

Apes have no tail and they brachiate and swim under branches

Gorillas walk in a way known as knuckle walking

Humans walk in an upright bipedal manner


What is the name given to animals that typically live in trees?

arboreal animals


What does the frankfurt horizontal line connect?

Frankfurt horizontal uses a imaginary line connecting the inferior most part of the orbit and the superior most part of the external ear opening.


What is the difference in foramen magnum orientation between humans and monkeys?

Foramen magnum is more anterior and inferior in humans compared to chimpanzees.


How are the vertebral column and nuccal muscles oriented in humans and monkeys?

Axis of vertebral column and nuchal muscles is more vertical in humans when compared to apes.


How is the skull of the ape different to humans?

Apes have a heavier and more projecting snout compared to humans.


How are the nuccal muscles different in apes compared to humans?

Apes have more and stronger nuchal muscles than humans.


Where is the omo cervicalluis located in monkeys? Do humans have this muscle?

Omo cervicalis is deep to the trapezius in muscles and originates at lateral processes of C1 and attaches to clavicle.
Humans do not have this muscle


Where is the origin and insertion of the rhomboids in humans and in apes?

Rhomboids originate at about T1 - T5 and attach to the medial border of the scapula. In apes they originate at nuchal line and attach to medial scapula.


What kind of lever does the skull use?

Skull works as a first order lever with pivot point at the connection between foramen magnum and the vertebral column


What is the anteriormost part of the skull in apes and humans?

Anterior most part of the skull is the nose in humans in apes it's the snout.


What is basicranial flexion and how is it different in humans compared to apes?

basicranial flexion is the flexion of basal part of the cranium relative to superior part of cranium. In humans it is smaller than in apes.


How are teeth different in humans compared to apes?

Teeth smaller in humans than apes


How is the brain case different in humans compared to apes?

Larger brain case in humans compared to apes


How are the rib cage and scapula different in monkeys, humans, and apes?

In monkeys rib cage is narrow sideways but long front to back. Scapula is located on the side of the ribcage. Glenoid cavity is oriented forwards.
Humans and apes typically have a wide ribcage, posteriorly oriented scapula, and laterally facing glenoid cavity.


How is the clavicle different in quadrupeds, brachiaters, and humans?



How is the shape of the rib cage different in chimpanzees and humans?

Chimpanzees have a funnel shaped rib cage. Humans have a more barrel shaped rib cage.


How is the pelvis different in humans and apes?

Iliac blades in apes are a lot longer and larger than in humans. Humans have a more flexible lumbar region.


How is the spinal curvature different in apes and humans?

Humans have an S-shaped vertebral column. 2 secondary curvatures.
Apes have a C-shaped curvature with one primary curvature.


What are the ape vertebrae numbers (how many CTLS and coccygeal vertebrae?

Apes have 7 C, 13T, 3L, 6S, 3-4 Coccygeal.