Flashcards in Lecture 8.3 Deck (52):
What kind of joint is the Lumbosacral joint?
Secondary Cartilaginous IV Joint.
The zygapophyseal joints are synovial joints.
What kind of Joint is the Sacroiliac Joint?
What structures articulate within the sacroiliac joint?
The auricular surface of the sacrum and the ileum
Is the sacroiliac Joint a weight bearing joint?
What kind of joint is the pubic symphysis?
Secondary cartilaginous joint b/w pubic bones
What kind of curvature would you expect to find in the Lumbar spine and the sacral spine?
Lumbar = lordosis
Sacral = kyphosis
How are the articular processes arranged in the Lumbar spine, the sacral spine, and the lumbosacral join?
Lumbar spine = Medially
Sacral spine = laterally
Lumbosacral joint = laterally
Why is the lumbosacral zygapophyseal joint arranged the way it is?
To prevent the anterior 'slip' of the spinal cord superior to the sacral spine.
What ligaments hold the lumbosacral joint together?
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Is the ilium said to have an auricular surface?
What ligaments stabilize the sacroiliac ligament?
Anterior sacroiliac ligament
Posterior sacroiliac ligament
How do the sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments protect the sacroiliac joint?
They prevent too much nutation.
What muscle originates at the sacrotuberous ligamen and other originst?
What structures form the greater sciatic foramen?
The ischial spine and the sacrospinous ligament inferiorly,the sacrotuberous ligament posteromedially, anterolaterally by the greater sciatic notch of the ilium.
What structures pass through the greater sciatic foramen?
The piriformis and the nerves that pass above it and below it.
(sciatic, sup. gluteal, inf. gluteal, post. Femoral cutaneous nerve)
What is nutation and counternutation?
Nutation is forward tilt of the spine and counternutation is the opposite
Describe the reverse keystone effect.
The reverse keystone effect is the effect where the sacrum is held into the ilium via interosseous ligaments and as a result the ilium bones are drawn together and hold the sacrum in place.
How is a baby able to survive in the womb if the sacrum is held so tightly in place by ligaments?
The ligaments get lax during pregnancy.
What is the function of the pubic symphysis?
The pubic symphysis prevents separation of pubic bones laterally and prevents compression.
What ligaments support the pubic symphysis?
Superior pubic ligament
Anterior pubic ligament
What kind of joint is the pubic symphysis?
Secondary cartilaginous joint
What kind of movement can the pubic symphysis perform?
Small gliding movements
What is the sexual dimorphism of the pubic symphysis?
Females have a wider pubic symphysis?
What kind of joint is the sacrococcygeal joint?
What ligaments hold the sacrococcygeal joint together?
Anterior and posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments
What is the difference between spondylolysis and spondylolythesis?
Spondylolythesis is the breakage of both pars interarticulari. Spondylolysis is the breakage of one pars interarticularis.
How does the pelvis typically get broken?
What are the margins of the hip joint capsule?
above intertrochanteric crest
Is the femoral neck intracapsular or extracapsular?
intracapsular with inferior part of the neck exposed.
Is the ligamentum teres covered by the synovial membrane?
What ligaments hold the hip joint together? where do they insert?
Ilio, ischio, and pubo femoral ligaments. Ilio inserts on intertrochanteric line, ischio inserts onto greater trochanter, pubo inserts near iliofemoral ligament and also merges with it iliofemoral ligament.
What position are all 3 hip joint ligaments tightest in?
hip internal rotation and extension
What is the function of each ligament in the hip joint?
They function to prevent hyperextension and abduction
What muscles stabilize the hip joint?
Psoas muscles anteriorly
Rectus femoris laterally
6 external rotators posteriorly
What bursae does the hip joint contain and where are they located?
Psoas bursa is found superficial to the hip joint ligaments (inferior to the origin of the iliofemoral ligament) and deep to the psoas tendons.
Trochanteric bursa found where gluteus medius and minimus insert.
What is the function of ligamentum teres?
Stabilizes hip joint and contains the obdurator artery which is an important blood supply in children and infants during young age.
Is the fat pad of the acetabular fossa intracapsular or extracapsular. Is it intra or extra synovial?
Fat pad is intracapsular and extrasynovial.
What is the most stable position for the hip joint?
Slight hip extension, abduction and internal rotation.
What structures are endangered in a posterior dislocation?
sciatic nerve and blood vessels.
What typically causes congenital dislocation?
baby swaddled too tightly causing too much adduction and dislocation.
Where is the transverse acetabular ligament found?
In the deficiency of the acetabulum. (acetabular notch)
What are the rotator cuff muscles?
What are the muscles of the adductor compartment?
adductor longus, brevis, and magnus.
What nerve innervates gluteus medius and minimus?
superior gluteal nerve
Where do the gluteus medius and minimus originate and insert?
From the ilium and insert onto the greater trochanter (anterior surface)
What actions do the gluteal muscles have on the thigh?
Gluteus medius and minimus abduct the thigh and internally rotate the thigh.
Gluteus maximus is involved in (power extensions)
Hip pain may be referred to where?
What is the blood supply of the femoral neck and head?
The profunda femoris gives off a medial and lateral branch around the femoral head and neck to act as anastomoses.
Ascending branch supplies head and neck of femur.
Descending branch supplies the shaft.
What different roles does the obturator artery play in adults and in children?
In adults it goes to the capsule.
In children it supplies head of femur through ligamentum teres.
What part of the ilium do the gluteus medius and minimus originate from?
The gluteal lines
Where do hamstring muscles typically originate from?
The ischial tuberosity.