Flashcards in Lecture 8.1 Deck (47):
What are the structures found in the popliteal fossa?
Sciatic nerve (splits to become tibial and common fibular nerve within the fossa)
small saphenous vein
popliteal lymph nodes
which nerve gives off the communicating sural nerve branch?
common fibular nerve
What is the deepest structure of the popliteal fossa?
The popliteal artery
What are the superficial muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?
Gastrocnemeus and soleus
What structures are present in posterior compartment of the leg?
muscles tibial nerve and posterior tibial vessels
What happens to the posterior tibial artery in the posterior compartment?
Posterior tibial artery gives off fibular artery (perforating branches to the lateral compartment)
Where in the posterior compartment is the tibial nerve?
deep to soleus and superficial to tibialis posterior
How do posterior structures continue after the leg?
the tarsal tunnel
What causes posterior compartment syndrome in the leg?
Loss of elasticity of veins returning blood to the heart followed by inactivity causing pooling of blood
What are complications that can result from posterior compartment syndrome?
deep vein thrombosis followed by pulmonary embolism
Can shin splints occur posteriorly?
What is significant about the plantaris muscle?
It has a separate tendon that joins with the gastrocnemius and soleus tendons.
It is absent in 7% and has a very long tendon (35-40cms!)
What is the significance of the soleus muscle?
It contains soleal sinuses and superficial veins go to deep veins through perforating veins that cross the soleus muscle.
What is a potential cause of achilles tendinitis?
Running suddenly without a warm up
What are the roles of the soleus and gastrocnemius in maintaining upright posture?
soleus contains slow twitch fibers and assists gastrocnemeus in maintainig upright posture while standing or walking.
Gastrocnemeus contains fast twitch fibers and is important in maintainign upright posture.
What nerve innervates posterior muscles?
What are the deep muscles of the posterior leg compartment?
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus
What are the proximal tarsal bones?
What are the middle row tarsal bones?
What are the distal row tarsal bones?
Where are the sesamoid bones of the foot found?
Flexor hallucis brevis tendon
What structures allow the foot to survive the tremendous forces acting on it?
What are the muscle and ligament attachments of the calcaneus on the plantar side?
How many articular surfaces does the calcaneus have for the talus?
What structures are found in the sinus tarsi?
What are the blood vessels that supply the talus?
Anteriorly: Dorsalis pedis
Posteriorly: posterior tibial and fibular arteries
What does the head of the talus articulate with?
What sulci form the tarsal sinus?
The calcaneal and talo sulci
What can be said about the blood supply to the talus?
It is poor particularly to the posterior tubercle. (fracture is similar to scaphoid fracture)
What could happen to posterior tubercle of talus if blood supply was occluded?
What is the name of the structure within the talus that articulates with the malleolar mortise?
the trochlear surface
What muscle attaches to navicular's tuberosity?
What attaches to cuboid's tuberosity?
What is a tarsal coalition?
Tarsal bones fuse together
What is a pott's fracture?
A pott's fracture is a fracture of the medial and lateral malleoli. It is caused by a laterally rolled ankle being hit from the lateral side
Which metatarsals are most commonly injured?
2nd and 5th
What are the origin and insertion of Abductor Hallucis brevis?
origin:medial tubercle of calcaneum; flexor retinaculum
Insertion: medial side, base of proximal phalanx of big toe
What is the origin and insertion of flexor digitorum brevis?
origin: medial tubercle of calcaneum
Insertion: middle phalanx of four lateral toes
What is the origin and insertion of abuctor digiti minimi?
origin:medial & lateral tubercles of calcaneum
Insertion:lateral side base of proximal phalanx 5th toe
What is the origin and insertion of quadratus plantae?
origin:medial and lateral sides of calcaneum
Insertion: tendons flexor digitorum longus
What is the origin and insertion of the lumbricals?
origin: tendons of flexor digitorum longus
Insertion: dorsal extensor expansion of lateral four toes
What structures are present with the second layer of muscles? Which muscles are in the second layer?
Second layer contains the lumbricals and quadratus plantae.
FDL and FHL tendons.
What is the origin and insertion of flexor hallucis brevis?
origin:cuboid, lateral cuneiform bones; tibialis posterior insertion
Insertion:medial & lateral sides of base of proximal phalanx of big toe
What is the origin and insertion of adductor hallucis?
origin: bases of 2nd, 3rd & 4th metatarsal bones
Insertion:lateral side base of proximal phalanx big toe
What is the origin and insertion of flexor digiti minimi
origin:base of 5th metatarsal bone
Insertion: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe
What muscles are present on the dorsal side of the foot?
Extensor digitorum brevis
Extensor hallucis brevis