Flashcards in Lecture 2.2 Deck (37):
What ligament runs anteriorly to the vertebral bodies?
Anterior longitudinal ligament.
What constitutes a spinal segment?
2 subsequent vertebra and the disk between them
What are the ligaments that run over the spinous and transverse processes?
What ligaments run between spinous processes?
What is the difference between the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum?
Posterior longitudinal arch runs posteriorly to the vertebral body within the vertebral canal. Protects against herniation via flaps that cover disks..
Ligamentum flavum runs on the posterior side of the vertebral canal between laminae. Ligamentum flavum contains elastic tissue.
What happens to ligamentum flavum with age?
It becomes more fibrous and thickens up and encroaches on the spinal cord and can impinge on nervous structures.
What portion of the disk can repair itself and can cause pain?
Outer 1/3 of the disk contains a nerve supply and blood supply.
Contains sensory and sympathetic fibers.
What type of joint are facet joints? What is characteristic of the fibrous capsule which makes it permit more movement?
Synovial joints with a lax fibrous capsule to permit movement.
What rami of the spinal nerves supply the facet joints?
What is the function of facet joints in the spinal cord?
Facet surfaces limit movement in the back.
What are the layers of the spinal cord?
dura mater -> arachnoid mater -> pia mater
Why do babies have a spinal cord that reaches S5 whereas in adults it only reaches L1/L2?
Spinal cord does not grow at the same rate as the vertebral canal.
Where is the lumbar cistern located?
Dura mater extends down to S3 after the spinal cord terminates until the point where the dura mater terminates is known as the lumbar cistern.
What is the clinical significance of the lumbar cistern?
The lumbar cistern can be used as the site for a lumbar puncture.
What are the contents of the intervertebral foramen?
Dorsal root ganglion which contains sensory cell bodies.
Nerve roots are located in the inferior vertebral notch (on top of the foramen)
Is trapezius innervated by anterior rami?
No, the trapezius muscle is innervated by a cranial nerve.
What innervates the superficial muscles of the back?
What innervates deep muscles of the back?
Where would transversospinalis be found?
Transversospinalis connect between vertebrae.
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
What types of vertebrae are there in the cervical spine?
typical & atypical vertebrae
What are the main features that are seen in the cervical spine that differentiates them from the other vertebrae?
Typical vertebrae contain bifid spinous processes, transverse foraminae, and 45 degree articular surfaces.
What structure passes through the transverse foraminae?
Transverse foraminae transmit vertebral artery which goes to the brain and communicates with carotid plexus.
Which Cervical vertebra contains a non-bifid spinous process?
C7 does not contain a bifid spinous process.
What is another name for C7?
C7 is also known as vertebra prominens.
How long are cervical ribs? What are the pathologies associated with cervical ribs?
cervical ribs could be short or long and could attach to the sternum via a fibrous band. This could impinge on nerve roots that form the ulnar nerve.
What is another name for C1 and for C2?
C1 is also known as the atlas
C2 is known as the axis
What replaces the C1 vertebral body and how is it important for the function of C1?
C1 vertebral body replaced by an arch and the odontoid process goes through the ring structure in front of this point and forms a joint with the arch?.
What type of joint exists between the dens and smooth surface of the vertebral arch of C1?
joint between dens and smooth surface of the vertebral arch of C1 is a pivot joint.
Are cervical disk prolapses possible?
What structures of the cervical spine limit movement of the cervical spine to flexion and extension?
The uncinate processes articulate with vertebrae above them to form uncovertebral joints which can only be moved in the saggital plane with slight ability to tilt in the coronal plane.
How are cervical facet joints different in children?
Facet joints are more horizontal in children.
What is the function of the atlantoaxial joint?
Atlantoaxial joint allows at least half of the rotation of the head.
How is the supraspinous ligament in cervical vertebrae different to other vertebrae?
Supraspinous ligament in cervical spine is much thicker and stronger than other vertebrae.
What ligaments stabilize the atlantoaxial joint?
Anterior + posterior longitudinal ligaments.
The head of the dens is held in place by:
Transverse ligament (prevents dislocation of dens into vertebral canal)
Alar ligaments (prevent too much rotation of atlas around dens.)
What condition can lead to laxity in transverse ligament of the atlantoaxial joint?