Flashcards in Lecture 2.1 Deck (33):
What are the boundaries of the back?
Back extends from the first thoracic vertebra until the coccyx. and between the scapulae of both sides and the iliac crest.
Where is the nerve supply better the skin of the back or the skin of the abdomen?
Nerve supply is much less than the stomach. 2 point discrimination on the back is much less than the stomach.
Where on the rib is damage typically seen?
At the point where the rib bends anteriorly.
How much of the skin of the body does the back contain? Why is this important?
18%. Rule of nines. This fact is important when talking about burns and how much fluid is lost and in need of replacement.
What is the secondary curvature of the back called?
Secondary curvature of the back is called lordosis.
What is cranial and caudal shift of the spine?
Cranial shift or caudal shift is seen as a shift of features of the spine either caudally or cranially. An example of this is the cervical rib or a long transverse process in a lumbar vertebra.
Why do vertebral bodies contain lots of holes?
For veins. (Vertebral bodies are highly vascular)
What can be said about the size of intervertebral disks?
Disks are typically narrow in the cervical and thoracic spine but in the lumbar spine they become larger. Due to increased weightbearing demands.
Where does the spinal cord pass through?
The vertebral column
Where does the spinal cord terminate?
Where do spinal nerves emerge from?
Spinal nerves emerge from intervertebral foramina.
What are superficial back muscles?
Superficial back muscles are the extrinsic muscles of the back that contain one attachment to the back and the other attachment typically to the upper limb..
What are deep back muscles?
Deep back muscles (intrinsic muscles) origin and insertion are within the back.
What are vertebral pedicles and laminae?
Pedicle connects arch to the body. Lamina connect pedicle to spinous process on each side.
How does the rib connect to thoracic vertebrae?
Articular facets for joints of the rib are present on the vertebral body and the transverse processes.
In what direction do sacral vertebrae fuse?
Sacral vertebrae typically fuse from the inferior vertebrae to the superior.
How are articular processes oriented in the vertebral column?
Lumbar vertebrae are typically in the sagittal plane. Lumbosacral joint is in a coronal plane.
What do the sacral foramina contain?
Sacral foramina contain sacral nerve roots and sacral veins.
What is the difference between veins of the body cavities and the veins within limbs?
Veins in the body cavities do not contain valves. eg. sacral veins.
What veins drain vertebral bodies? Where does this blood go before going to the anterior side of the body?
Vertebral bodies are drained by basivertebral veins. Basivertebral veins drain into internal vertebral venous plexuses which drain into external vertebral venous plexuses these drain into sacral veins.
What is another function of intervertebral venous plexuses?
Internal venous plexuses protect the spinal cord by cushioning it within the vertebral canal (surround the dura)
What do veins follow to the front of the body?
Veins accompany arteries to the front of the body.
Where do lymphatics go from the back of the body?
Lymphatics drain to the front of the body. As a result there are no lymph nodes in the back.
Where can primary ossification centers be found on vertebrae?
Primary ossification centers at the center of the vertebral body and on the laminae.
Where can secondary ossification centers be found on vertebrae?
Secondary ossification centers are found at the edges of the vertebral body and at the edges of each process of the vertebral arch.
When do secondary ossification centers typically fuse?
Secondary ossification centers typically fuse in late teens.
What are some anomalies of the vertebral column?
At times a wedge vertebra can result from spontaneous stop of growth in some people at the vertebrae.
Vertebrae may also fuse.
What are the 2 types of spina bifida?
Spina bifida occulta (2% of population)
Spina bifida cystica (0.1%) (aka meningocele or meningomyelocele)
What do meningomyeloceles contain?
Meningomyelocele contains neural tissue
What embryological structure is the nucleus pulposus derived from?
Nucleus pulposus is a remnant of the notochord.
What is the annulus fibrosus made of?
What happens to the nucleus pulposus with age?
Nucleus becomes more fibrous with age and can start to split/fissure.