Lecture 11.3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11.3 Deck (21):
1

Motor activity is evident from.

early stage of fetal development in all studied vertebrates

2

What is the function of fetal locomotor action?

help refine neural networks - optimise connectivity

It may also be importantn for development of muscle and joints

3

true or false

spontaneuos activity of neurons is a feature developing neural circuits that are concerned with movement

False

it's a feature of ALL developing neurons

4

reciprocally connnected inhibitory internerons produce an elementary ______, _____ pattern of output

reciprocally connnected inhibitory internerons produce an elementary alternating, phasic pattern of output

5

Stance phase of walking involves ____ muscles

extensor

6

Swing phase of walking involves ____ muscles

mainly flexor muscles

7

After SC transection, cats can still generate _____ ______output - they can even increase locomotor ___when treadmill speed increased

After SC transection, cats can still generate patterned locomotor output - they can even increase locomotor speed when treadmill speed increased

8

Muscle spindles have ___ fibres wrapped around them

sensory

9

sensory information from _____ and _____ ___ is critical for controlling the precise timing of flexor/extensor offset and onset - and also accounts for increase in speed for acerabral cats

sensory information from spindles and tendon organs is critical for controlling the precise timing of flexor/extensor offset and onset - and also accounts for increase in speed for acerabral cat

10

sensory activity from muscle and tendon is crucial to make sure locomotion is optimal and you don't...

fall over/lose balance

11

In horses, as the stimulation increases..

there is a gait transitiion

12

What are the functions of the Basal Ganglia

1) allow the selection of complex patterns of voluntary movement

2) Evaluation the sucess of actions achieving the goal

3) initiating movements

13

Functions of the cerebellum?

The accuracy of the movements

coordinating timing
Maintenance of muscle tone
Motor learning
planning sequences of muscle activation for complex movements

14

What sort of things go wrong with motor control?>

Tremors

Weakness, Paralysis, Atrophy

Increased responsiveness

Increased tone or spasticity

simple or complex sontaneous movements

lack of coordination

15

In humans the spinal locomotor circuits can not be actiated, even by activation of the muscle sensory inputs which can initiate locomotion in spinal ________

In humans the spinal locomotor circuits can not be actiated, even by activation of the muscle sensory inputs which can initiate locomotion in spinal quadrupreds

16

Although motoneurons lose many of their inputs, most of those inputs from the brain were _____- so rather than being less excitable, motoneurons exhibit ___-_______

Although motoneurons lose many of their inputs, most of those inputs from the brain were inhibitory so rather than being less excitable, motoneurons exhibit hyper-excitability

17

true or false

Gait patterns can be re-learnt consciously

true

18

Locomotor pattern generation originates in..

lumbar-sacral cord

19

Spinal cord circuits encode complex ___transition

Spinal cord circuits encode complex gait transitions

20

Gait is a spinal pattern elicited and strongly modulated by segmental and _______ input

Gait is a spinal pattern elicited and strongly modulated by segmental and descending input

21

Specific neurological disorders have specific ____ abnormalities

Specific neurological disorders have specific gait abnormalities