Lecture 7.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7.2 Deck (25):
1

Plant-hopper insect has the fastest accelerating mechanism in the animal kingdom using a ______

gearing system

2

What are two model imputs for motion models of the human body?

Motion capture and EMG data

Force-plate data

3

Constant activity of the calf muscles will cause a child to constant walk on their...

toes

4

A surgical intervention for a patient who walks on their toes is to...

Lengthen Achilles tendon

5

What is the idea of skin motion artefact?

What is a means around it?

when a marker is placed on the skin, the skin itself. THis means it is not an accurate measurement of how the bones are moving and interacting

Pins can be placed in the bones to get more accurate measurements - But can't be used on knee

6

Why is accurate motion of bones important to study in biomechanics?

Develop contact models - can see the stress distribution of joints - imporatnt for diseases like osteoarthritis

7

What is Bi-plane X-ray Fluoroscopy?

takes video x-ray at high speed

Two planes of X-ray creates 3D information

8

Muscles that are positioned further from a joint of rotation, have _____ moment arms, ___ leverage and torque

Muscles that are positioned further from a joint of rotation, have larger moment arms, larger leverage and torque

9

The stabilising or destabilising potential of a muscle is determined by its ___ of _____

The stabilising or destabilising potential of a muscle is determined by its line of action

10

tendon excursion can be used to measure ___ ____

moment arms

11

The supraspinatus has a large capacity to elevate the arm in early _______

The supraspinatus has a large capacity to elevate the arm in early abduction

12

In abduction, deltoid leverage happens ___

late

13

positive moment arms are _____, negative are _______

positive moment arms are abductors, negative are adductors

14

rotator cuff tears and lack of use of shouldar can lead to _________

osteroartritis

15

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is...

is a prosthetic joint replacement

the anatomy is reversed however (ball on end of humerus)

16

The reversed anatomy ____ the moment arms of the shoulder muscles, what does this mean for joint movements?

The reversed anatomy increases the moment arms of the shoulder muscles, what does this cause?

Less force is required to move the arm - more leverage

17

As we rotate our arms, the scapula moves with the ______

As we rotate our arms, the scapula moves with the humerus

18

Which muscles moment arm (leverage) is increased significantly in Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is...

deltoid

19

There was reduced joint _____, improved ______and _______ in Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty surgery

There was reduced joint dislocation, improved stability and function in Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty surgery

20

the line of action of the deloid is more superiorly inclined in Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty surgery


This means more superior force in the shoulder - the loading is upward meaning it wants to...

the line of action of the Deltoid is more _____inclined in Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty surgery


This means more ______force in the shoulder - the loading is _______meaning it wants to pull the implant out of the scapula = FAILURE

21

The smallest, most fragile vertebrae are _______

superior

22

Normal motion of the neck involves...

complex coupled rotations of segments in all 3 planes of motion

23

The transverse and spinous processes act to ______ the moment arm of the muscles that attach to them

The transverse and spinous processes act to increase the moment arm of the muscles that attach to them

24

every muscle has a _______ moment arm in the neck

every muscle has a different moment arm in the neck

25

What is needed to realistically model a muscle's torque capacity?

To realistically model a muscles torque capacity, its individual sub-regions(origins/insertions) must be considered for each joint in which they span