Lecture 2.3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2.3 Deck (26):
1

High loads are espeically present in the ______ spine

lumbar

2

the movements that are allowed in the psine are guided by _____ orientation

facet orientation

3

movements of the back are influenced by:

 

1) Thickness of vertebral discs - enhance movement

2) orientation of articular facets - limit movement to ertain directions

 

4

Thoracic - permit rotation in _____ ___

coronal plane

5

Lumbosacral - LIMIT movement in ______ plane

sagittal plane

6

lumbar - permit flexion/extension in ____ plane

sagittal

7

Flexion of back caues the nucleus of IV disc to project ________

posteriorly

8

what movement places a great deal of stress on the facet joints?

hyperextension

9

There is a small degree of Lateral flexion in the _____ spine, but limited by ribs.

Most LF occurs in  ____ spine

There is a small degree of Lateral flexion in the thoracic spine, but limited by ribs.

Most LF occurs in lumbar spine

10

Erector spina muscles are ___ ____

they are responsible for contrentrically returning the ____trunk to the upright (_______) posture

they also work __________in controlling flexion

They are _______ "quiet" in full fleion - this why you lift with ____ knees

Erector spina muscles are prime movers

They are responsible for contrentrically returning the flexed trunk to the upright (extended) posture

they also work eccentrically in controlling flexion

They are electrically "quiet" in full fleion - this why you lift with bend knees

11

Transversospinalis are ___ to erector spinae

they run between the _______process and the _______ process

 

they are short - hence they are ________

 

Transversospinalis are deep to erector spinae

they run between the transverse process and the spibous process

 

they are short - hence they are stabilisers

12

transversospinalis act together with deep abdominal muscles to form a "corset" around truck connecting via ______  _____

transversospinalis act together with deep abdominal muscles to form a "corset" around truck connecting via lumbar fascia

13

Low back pain can be dvided into two main types:

1 ) mechanicl type pain - Muscle strains, disc prolapse

2) compressive type pain - typically a nerve root

14

What are he conditions for inducing a disc prolapse?

  1. 15 degree lumbar fleion - forces nucles posteriorly
  2. 15 degree rotation - max torsion in annulus
  3. light LF forces nucleus postero-laterally
  4. Be fat or overweight
  5. contract trunk muscles
  6. keep lower limbs fully extended
  7. pick up heavy object near opposite foot

15

The 3 types of disc prolapse are:

Bulge

herniation - posterolaterally

Extrusion

16

posterior rami innervate:

  • facet joints
  • deep back muscles
  • overlying skin

17

There is a dics prolapse between L4/5, which nerve root will be spared and why?

L4  - Its already emerged and pass, via the intravertebral foramen, to the exterior

18

L5/S1 Disc prolapse - affects ___ nerve root

How is pain, movement & signs expressed?

S1

Pain - over hip, postero-lateral thigh, partial sensory loss in s1 dermatome

movement - restricted and painful - weakened plantar flexion (S1 myotome)

signs - limited straight leg raise, diminsed sensation

19

What nerve roots supply the diaphragm /

 

3,4,5 - keeps the diaphragm alive

20

What is spondylosis, osteophytes and stenosis?

 

With aging bones tend to lose water and become less dense

may cause overgrowth of bone producing bony spurs (osteophytes that can extend into the foramina, narrowing then (stenosis) and compressing exiting nerve roots

21

Compression fractures are often associated with ________

 

Compression fractures are often associated with osteoporosis

 

22

What is Ankylosing spondylitis?

Affects spine, joints of pelvis ultimately leading to fusion (ankylosis)

23

Non-mechanical low back pain sign?

 

Injury

type of Pain

Onset

Aggravation

relief from...

Other features

 

 

Injury - none

type of pain - deep aching, continuous, unrelenting

Onset - insidious (awaiting a chance to entrap : treacherous.)

Aggravation - lifting, movement

relief from - analgesia

Other features  -fatigue, recent weight loss, urinary symptoms

24

What could be some systemic causes to back pain?

aortic aneurism, metastasis of cancer cells to back

25

Fascia layers create spaces, ____, __, ____can spread throughout

 

Fascia layers create spaces, infection, puss, blood can spread throughout

26