cervical spine is part of the N___
cervical spine is part of the Neck
There are typically __ thoracic vertebrae
There are typically 12thoracic vertebrae
The line of gravity mostly passes _____to vertebrae which helps reduce load
The line of gravity mostly passes adjacent to vertebrae which helps reduce load
Identify the secondary curavatures in the vertebral coloum
Why would vertebral coloum appear red?
Rich blood supply/
Spinal cord terminates at?
Between L1 and 2
The bodies of lumbar vertebrae get ____ as you go down the spine
The bodies of lumbar vertebrae get bigger as you go down the spine
What is unique to thoracic vertebrae?
sacrum is made up of __fused vertebrae
What are the sacral foramen a the equivalent of in the upper parts of the vertbral coloumn
now positioned anterior and posterior
There are __ valve in the veins of body cavities
are there nerve roots at the sacral canal?
what major artery runs along the posterior adbominsl wall?
Veins in the vertebrae drain to the
external vertebral venous plexus
Epiphyseal growth plates can be mistaken for a _______ in the tips of spinous and transverse processes in adolescents
Epiphyseal growth plates can be mistaken for fractures in the tips of spinous and transverse processes in adolescents
The annulous attaches to the ______ ___ below and ab
The annulous attaches to the vertebral body below and above
holds it together
name the ligaments of the vertebrae
The layers in the annulus are _____ to each other
Twisting movements are dangerous because
only 50% of annular fibres are positioned to resist load
The annulus does have a blood supply in the ____ ___
what innervates the annulus?
the Recurrent meningeal nerve
The joints of the vertebral arches are
Capsules of the vertebral synovial joints are supplied by
(also supply intrinsic musles and overlying skin)
The membrane around the spinal is...
the Dura Mater
what is positioned most superiorly in the vertebral canal
Internal verebral venous plexus
The nerve root is always in the ____ part of the vertebral foramen
Name 4 superficial back muscles
The superficial muscles of the back (except trapezius) are innervated by
Upper limb muscles are generally suppled by vessels branching from the....
Deep muscle - Erector spinae runs ______ to the verebral coloumn
What group of muscles lies in between the transve process and the spinous process?
Erector spinae are prime movers for ____