Lecture 15 Endocrine system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15 Endocrine system Deck (55):
1

What links the CNS to the endocrine system?

hypothalamus

2

What does the posterior pituitary gland release?

Oxytocin and ADH

3

What does the anterior pituitary release?

Growth hormone, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, Prolactin

4

What does ACTH do?

Adreno-corticotrophic hormone (stimulates production & release of cortisol)

5

What causes hyperpituitarism?

Adenoma (most common an anterior lobe) (prolactinoma)

6

Types of pituitary adenoma?

Macrodenomas (>1cm), Microadenomas (

7

What syndrome can ACTH cause?

Cushing's disease

8

What syndrome can growth hormone cause?

Gigantism (children) and acromegaly (adults)

9

What syndrome can prolactin cause?

Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, sexual gysfunction and infertility

10

What syndrome can TSH cause?

Hyperthyroidism

11

What syndrome can FSH and LH cause?

Hypogonadism, mass effects/hypopituitarism

12

What is hypopituitarism?

When 75% or more of the anterior pituitary parenchyma is lost

13

What causes hypopituitarism?

Sheehan's syndrome (ischemic necrosis). Non-functioning adenomas, surgery/irradiation, inflam lesions.

14

What is the optic chasm?

Part of the brain where optic nerves (CNII) partially cross

15

In regards to thyroid, what does the hypothalamus release?

Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) -> anterior pituitary -> TSH

16

What are the thyroid hormones?

T3 and T4

17

What do thyroid hormones do?

^metabolism, growth, development and ^ catecholamine effect (dopamine)

18

What causes hyperthyroidism?

Too much thyroxine (T4), De Quervain's thyroiditis, toxic multimode goiter, graves disease.

19

Define goiter

enlarged thyroid gland (swollen neck)

20

What is Grave's disease?

Autoimmune disease, same effect as TSH -> unregulated overproduction of thyroid hormones. (no TSH = no neg feedback)

21

What are the main symptoms of graves disease?

Heat intolerance, blushing, tachy, ^SBP, tremors, local oedema, diarrhea, finger clubbing, weight loss, muscle wasting.

22

Hyperthyroid treatment?

Carbimazole or thyroidectomy

23

What causes hypothyroidism?

Iodine deficiency, hashimoto's thyroiditis

24

What is hashimoto's thyroiditis?

Chronic inflam -> thyroid failure. Autoimmune.

25

Who is hashimoto's thyroiditis most common to?

Women. 45-60.

26

Hypothyroidism treatment?

Thyroxine

27

What is a papillary thyroid carcinoma?

a non-functional tumour

28

What do the parathyroid glands do?

regulate blood calcium levels.

29

What are the causes of hypoparathryroidism?

Thyroidectomy, congenital, hereditary (autoimmune)

30

What are the symptoms of hypoparathyroidism?

Low calcium so irritability, seizures, tetany.

31

What causes primary hyperparathyroidism?

Adenoma

32

What causes secondary hyperthyroidism?

Chronic renal failure

33

What causes tertiary hyperthyroidism?

Post renal transplant

34

How do parathyroid glands increase blood Ca2+?

Ca2+ reabsorption from bones, intestines and kidneys. Vit D hydroxylation in kidneys

35

What are the symptoms of hypercalcemia?

Seizures, constipation, depression, polyuria, muscle wasting, bone # and kidney stones

36

Process of adrenal cortex being stimulated?

Hypothalamus -> CRH -> Pituitary -> ACTH -> Adrenal cortex

37

What are the three layers of the adrenal cortex called and function?

Zona Reticularis (sex hormones) Zona Fasciculata (Cortisol - glucocorticoids) and Zona Glomerulosa (Aldosterone - mineralocort)

38

What does the middle of the adrenal cortex release?

Catecholamines
(adrenaline/noradrenaline)

39

What is the middle of the adrenal cortex called?

Adrenal medulla

40

What causes hyperaldosteronism?

Primary - Conn's disease in >50%
Secondary - ^renin

41

Symptoms of Conn's disease

Oedema, low K+, ^ Na+ and hypertension

42

What does renin do?

promotes protein angiotensin production

43

What does angiotensin do?

^ aldosterone secretion and ^BP

44

When/why is cortisol release?

When stressed, ^ glucose in blood.

45

Why would someone get Cushing's syndrome?

Excess release of cortisol

46

What causes Cushing's syndrome?

ACTH releasing tumour and steroids.

47

What are the common symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?

Moon face, baffalo hump, osteoporosis, obesity, abdominal striae, weak muscles, thin skin and skin ulcers (poor healing)

48

What is addison's disease?

Adrenal insufficiency

49

What causes addison's disease?

Autoimmune, infection, neoplasms.

50

What are the symptoms of addison's disease?

Diarrhoea, N/V, anorexia, weight loss, low Na+ (all due to low aldosterone). Hyperpigmentation&K+

51

What are gonadocorticoids?

Sex hormones (testosterone, oestrogens) secreted from gonads

52

What does adrenaline and noradrenaline control?

HR, BP & metabolism

53

What is phaeochromocytoma?

tumour of adrenal gland -> ^ adrenaline and noradrenaline

54

Symptoms of phaeochromocytoma?

Hypertension, sweating, palpitations, nervousness, ^metabolic rate, rapid HR

55

What is multipleendocrine neoplasia (MEN)

Group of inherited diseases resulting in proliferative of lesions of multiple multiple endocrine organs)