Lecture 17 The Breast Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 17 The Breast Deck (27):
1

What type of gland is the breast?

Sweat gland

2

What is the epithelium of the breast made of?

Ducts and lobules arranged in terminal duct lobular units

3

With pain in the breast?

2% have cancer

4

What can palpable masses in the breast be?

Cysts, benign tumours, cancer

5

Involving nipple discharge, what percantages are benign or malignant?

B = 95% m = 5%

6

With a mammographic abnormality

2% screened asymptomatic populaition

7

What does breast cancer screening involve?

50-70years old. (undergoing extension). Mammography. 3 yearu.

8

What is a mammography?

(Mastography) is the process of using low energy x-rays to examine the breast. Squash it.

9

40% and 10%of incidences of breast disease are

40% = fibrocystic changes. 10% = cancer

10

Name the three types of benign breast diseases

Fibrocystic disease, fat necrosis and mastitis.

11

What is fibrocystic disease?

V. common. Lumpiness, calcification, pain/tenderness. Hormone related and cumulative >30yo

12

What is Fat necrosis?

Trauma to breast -> localised haemorrhage and necrosis -> hard lump

13

What is mastitis? Risk factor?

Inflam, red, tender, warm. Blocked ducts can lead to lactation mastitis (encourage breast feeding). Smoking

14

What are the benign breast tumours?

Fibroadenoma and papilloma

15

What is fibroadenoma?

Rubbery lumps, reproductive age, do not need removal, ^during pregnancy

16

What is papilloma?

Wart like growth in ducts (up to 2cm), -> bleeding/nipple discharge

17

What are the malignant breast cancer types?

Ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma and paget's disease

18

What is the average age at diagnosis for breast cancer?

64 years

19

What gene mutation causes breast cancer?

BRCA. 5x ^ breast cancer risk, 10x^ ovarian cancer risk.

20

What are the risk factors for breast cancer?

Age, height, Oestrogen (menache, breast feeding), Life style (obesity (30%), alcohol, dietary fat)

21

Clinical presentation of breast cancer?

Lump, skin dimpling, change in skin colour or texture, change in nipple, fluid leaking from nipple

22

What is ductal carcinoma?

DCIS or invasive.

23

What is ductal carcinoma in situ?

Abnormality of milk ducts, pre-malignant condition. Low grade>high grade > invasive

24

What is invasive ductal carcinoma?

Most common breast cancer. Grades 1-3.

25

How do you treat invasive ductal carcinoma?

Lumpectomy, mastectomy, sentinel lymph node. Chemo/radio or hormone therapies (tamoxifen, herceptin).

26

What is lobular carcinoma?

Can be LCIS or invasive

27

What is paget's disease?

Affects nipple skin, eczema type rash, itchy, poss bleeding. Invasive or non-nvasive.