Lecture 8 Disorders of Growth 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 Disorders of Growth 1 and 2 Deck (49):
1

Define neoplasm

Abnormal mass of tissue whos growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with normal tissues. Continues to excessively grow without the stimuli that envoked change.

2

Define tumour

Literally means swelling, but conventionally used as synonym for neoplasm.

3

Qualities of benign?

Lacks ability to invade or metastasize. Therefore not cancerous. Grows by expansion, displacing adjacent tissue.

4

Qualities of malignant?

Invades surrounding tissue, capable of producing metastases, may recur after removal -> death. Grows by infiltration of local tissues.

5

Malignant tumours can spread by

Local (direct invasion) or distant (metastasis)

6

Define carcinoma

Malignant tumour of epithelial tissue

7

Define sarcoma

Malignant tumour of stromal tissue

8

What are stromal tissues?

Connective tissue calls of any organ

9

Define metastasis 2 ways?

1) a secondary tumour 2) process by which secondary tumour is formed

10

What are the routes of metastasis?

Lymphatics, blood, transcoelomic, along epithelial lined spaces, within epithelium.

11

Explain how lymphatics are metastasis routes?

Tumour may directly invade lymphatics. Tumour emboli filtered out -> grow in lymph nodes.Typical of Epithelial malignancy.

12

Explain how blood is a metastasis route?

Tumour in vessels ->Filtered out by capillary beds (liver or lung). Typical of stromal malignancy and later stages of epithelial malignancy.

13

Define transcoelomic spread

Across body cavity

14

Where are transcoelomic spread tumours found?

Peritoneal or pleural

15

Where are epithelial lined spaces tumours found?

Bronchiolo - alveolar carcinoma of lung

16

Where are epithelial malignancies normally found?

Lymph nodes

17

Where are stromal malignancies and late stage epithelial malignancies found?

Capillary beds (liver and lung)

18

Give an example of when a metastasis occurs within epithelium cells

Paget's disease of the nipple.

19

How they're classified?

Naked eye appearance (site, conformation), histological, histogenesis, aetiological, functional.

20

What is histological?

What does the tissue resemble? How close is the resemblance?

21

Define histogenesis?

Cell of origin

22

What is aetiological

Inheritance v environmental

23

What does the naming of neoplams (tumour terminology) depend on?

Site, behaviour, histogenesis.

24

What does a benign tumour end in?

oma

25

Define Polyp

Mass attached to a surface, may or may not be a neoplasm

26

What is leukaemia?

Neoplastic proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells -> spill into blood stream. MALIGNANT

27

What is lymphoma?

Malignant proliferation of cells of lymphoid tissue. 2 types, Hodgkin's disease or non-hodgkin's lymphoma.

28

What is hodgkin's disease?

Lymphoma, mix of cells including Reed-Sternberg cells

29

What is non-hodgkin's disease?

Lymphoma. Lacks cellular mixture.

30

Teratoma?

Arises from totipotential cells, producing tissues prepresenting all three germ cell layers

31

Teratoma in ovary is usually?

Benign. (struma ovarii) AND (Ovarian teratoma with teeth/skin/adnexae)

32

Teratoma in testes is usually?

Malignant

33

Teratoma in midline is usually?

Sequestered primitive cells

34

Define totipotential cells?

Potential to give rise to any and all human cells (for example one celled fertilised egg).

35

What is a premalignant condition?

Lesions with an ^ risk of developing an invasive tumour

36

Give 4 non-neoplastic examples of premalignant conditions?

Chronic inflammation, cirrhosis of liver, chronic ulcerative colitis and xeroderma pigmentosum

37

Give example of how chronic inflammation can cause cancer?

Varicose leg ulcers can lead to skin cancer

38

Give example of how chronic ulcerative colitis can lead to cancer?

Adenocarcinoma of large intestine

39

Give 2 neoplastic examples of premalignant conditions?

Familial polyposis coli and intra-epithelial neoplasia

40

What is familial polyposis coli?

Autosomal dominant, 1000s of large intestinal adenomas -> Carcinoma inevitable

41

What is intra-epithelial neoplasia?

Nuclear changes of carcinoma, without breaching basement membrane - "dysplasia" or "carcinoma in situ". Uterine cervix, vulva, bronchus.

42

What is tumour grading? (Only for malignant tumours)

How bad it looks. Assesses the degree of differentiation of a tumour. Correlates with how aggressive tumour behaves. Usually 3 or 4 grades.

43

Problems with grading?

Subjective. Appearances vary from area to area. Different criteria needed for each histogenesis

44

What is tumour staging?

How far its got (stage it's at). Based on TNM 1) T- Size of tumour (T1-T4) 2) N - lymph node involvement (N0-N3) 3) M- distant metastasis (M0 to M1)

45

Which has the better prediction of outcome, Grading or Staging?

Staging

46

What are the effects of tumours?

1) displacement or destruction of normal structures 2) excess normal function 3) Paraneoplastic phenomena

47

What are the effects of benign tumours?

Mechanical pressure, obstruction, ulceration, infarction of pedunculated tumour, infection, rupture of cystic neoplasm, hormone production, malignant change.

48

What are the effects of malignant tumours?

Tissue destruction, haemorrage, secondary infection, cachexia, pain, anaemia, paraneoplasic syndromes

49

Define paraneoplastic syndromes?

Side effects of cancer (that come with cancer) that are not due to cancer cells?