Lecture 2 Injuries to cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Injuries to cells Deck (36):
1

Define hyperplasia

Increase in number of cells.

2

Physiological example of hyperplasia?

Menstrual cycle

3

Pathological example of hyperplasia?

Endometrial hyperplasia if hormone stimulus persists

4

Define hypertrophy

Increase in the size of cells

5

Physiological example of hypertrophy?

Body builders

6

Pathological example of hypertrophy?

Heart in hypertension

7

Define Mataplasia

When one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell trype

8

Example of metaplasia?

Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux

9

Define atrophy

Shrinkage of cell size by loss of substance

10

Why atrophy happens?

↓ workload. ↓blood supply. Inadequate nutrition. ↓hormone stimulation. Ageing.

11

Morphology of reversible cellular injury?

Cellular swelling and fatty change.

12

Define necrosis

Damage to membrane allowing enzymes to digest cell.

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Necrosis pathological or physiological

Always pathological

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4 types of necrosis

Coagulation, liquefactive, caseous, fat.

15

Define apoptosis

Programmed cell death pathway. Both pathological and physiological.

16

How does apoptosis occur?

Cells activate enzymes that degrade cells own DNA and proteins -> death/deprived growth factors. Membrane remains intact, no leaks, phagocytosis removes bits of cell.

17

Physiological or pathological apoptosis? Embryogenesis

Physiological

18

Physiological or pathological apoptosis? Involution of hormone dependent tissues when deprived of hormone.

Physiological

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Physiological or pathological apoptosis? Elimination of cells who have served their purpose.

Physiological

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Physiological or pathological apoptosis? Killing ?harmful cells

Physiological

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Physiological or pathological apoptosis? DNA damage

Pathological

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Physiological or pathological apoptosis? Accumulation of misfolded proteins

Pathological

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Physiological or pathological apoptosis? Atrophy in parenchymal organs after duct obstruction.

Pathological

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Physiological or pathological apoptosis? Cell death induced by cytotoxic T cells

Pathological

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Apoptosis results from the activation of

Caspases

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Mitochondrial pathway...

Intrinsic pathway

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Fas (death) receptor pathway...

Extrinsic pathway

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Cell injury by ATP depletion

Occurs from: ↓oxygen and nutrient supply, mitochondrial damage, poisons. Effects: ATP dependent Na2+ pumps, ^lactic acid, Xcalcium pumps& protein damage.

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Mitochondrial damage

Occurs from: hypoxia, chemical poisons, radiations. Effects: Fail to produce ATP & free radicals

30

Influx of Ca2+

Occurs from: ischaemia & poisons. Effects: ^intracellular Ca2+ -> enzyme activation -> damage to cellular components. APOPTOSIS.

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Oxidative stress

Occurs from: ^free radicals. Removed by antioxidants. Effects: damage proteins, fat, DNA & create more of themselves.

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DNA protein damage

Occurs from: radiation injury/oxidative stress. APOPTOSIS.

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Defects in membrane permeability

Effects: ↓phospholipid synthesis (↓ATP). O2 free radicals and lipid breakdown. NECROSIS

34

Intracellular accumulation of abnormal material examples

Fat in hepatocytes (liver cells) from alcohol use. Cholesterol in SM in atherosclerosis. Protein in alzheimer's and parkinson's disease.

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Damage to genes controlling DNA repair ->

susceptible to further change

36

Neoplastic

New growth