Lecture 17 Female genital tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 17 Female genital tract Deck (94):
1

Define post-coital

During or post sex

2

Define post-coital

During or post sex

3

What is a smear test?

Cervical screening, view cervix and take samples. Every 3 years from 25-49yo, 5 years from 49-64yo. After 64 only screen if never screened. Done in GP.

4

Define colposcopy

procedure to closely examine cervix

5

How is the human papilloma virus transmitted?

Sexual contact. Increase risk with increased sexual partners

6

HPV is thought to be the main cause of?

CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia) thus cancer.

7

What can HPV cause?

warts/verrucas (low risk) or cervical cancer (high risk)

8

Who gets the HPV vaccination and why?

girls aged 12-13, offering protection against infection strains associated with 70% of cervical cancers

9

Define CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasm)

Microscopic lesion that affects the cervix that could potentially develop into cervical cancer if left untreated

10

What are the risk factors for cervical carcinoma?

HPV, smoking, nonattendance to CSP.

11

What are the symptoms of cervical carcinoma?

Abnormal discharge and bleeding

12

On examination how does the cervix look with cervical carcinoma?

Normal

13

What does the treatment of cervical ccarcinoma depend on?

Stage, local excision or radical hysterectomy +/- chemo

14

what are the 5 year survival rates for Ia stages of cervical carcinoma?

95-99%

15

What are the 5 year survival rates for late stages of cervical carcinoma?

16

What are endocervical polyps? What are symptoms and treatment?

Benign lesions, irregular vaginal bleeding 'spotting'. Can be removed at hysteroscopy.

17

Define menorrhagia

Heavy periods >80ml blood loss. Very common 1 in 20 consult gp a year, costs £7 million in prescriptions.

18

What can cause menorrhagia?

DUB (50%), fibroids, endometriosis, polyps.

19

What are the treatments for menorrhagia?

Mirena coil, mefanamic and tranexamic acid, COCP, Depo provera, endometrial ablation, hysterectomy

20

What is tranexamic acid used for?

Prevent excessive blood loss from trauma

21

What is another word for fibroids? What is it?

Leiomyomas. Common benign tumours of muscular fibrosis tissues.

22

What problem can have the symptoms heavy, painful periods, pelvic pain, distension

Fibroids

23

What condition can be asymptomatic and a major cause for infertility? / what could symptoms be?

Endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Abnormal discharge, pain or bleeding

24

Define endometriosis?

Endometrial tissue in the wrong location. Common benign condition.

25

What are the symptoms of endometriosis?

Heavy/painful periods, pelvic pain, painful sex.

26

What are the treatment options for endometriosis?

COCP, Mirena, Zoladex , surgery

27

What is Zoladex?

Man made hormone, overstimulates body's own hormone production -> Xproduction temp

28

What is endometrial cancer?

Cancer of the lining of the uterus

29

Symptoms of endometrial cancer?

Bleeding post-menopause so detected early.

30

Risk factors for endometrial cancer?

Nulliparity, high BMI, HRT, late menopause, oestrogen exposure.

31

How is endometrial cancer diagonsed?

Biopsy - pipelle (deviced used) othysteroscopy

32

Endometrial cancer treatment and survival rate?

TAH, BSO. Overall 20 year survival rate 80%

33

What is TAH?

Total abdo histerectomy

34

What is BSO?

Bilateral Salpingo oophonectomy (removal of women's entire reproductive tract)

35

Notes on follicular cysts?

Benign, very common, less than 6cm, often asymptomatic - no treatment needed

36

Notes on cystadenomas

Can be large fluid filled cysts, symptoms caused by pressure effect

37

Notes on benign mature Teratomas

Large cysts filled with solid substances

38

Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Symptoms, treatments, complications

Common, major cause of infertility. irregularbleeds, no periods, infertility. COCP, metformin, clomifene. ^CV & T2DM risks

39

Benign ovarian tumours normally occur at what age?

20-45

40

Malignant ovarian tumours normally occur at what age?

>45

41

Ovarian cancer notes

Often asymptomatic, present late when already spread. Poorer prognosis than endometrial cancer

42

What is a miscarriage?

Loss of pregnancy before 24 weeks, 15% of pregnancies, often no cause.

43

Classifications of miscarriages?

Threatened, inevitable, incomplete and missed

44

Risk factors of pregnancies?

^ age, multiple pregnancies, smoking, alcohol, connective tissue disorders and diabetes

45

Treatment options for miscarriages?

Conservative, misoprostol, vaccum suction under GA

46

Notes on ectopic pregnancies

Usually fallopian tube, 1% of pregnancies, can occur before period missed, ?emergency as rupture of pregnancy has ^mortality.

47

What levels are raised with ectopic pregnancies?

Beta-HCG levels on blood testing

48

What are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancies?

PID, coil, IVF, previous ecctopic or pelvic surgery

49

What is a smear test?

Cervical screening, view cervix and take samples. Every 3 years from 25-49yo, 5 years from 49-64yo. After 64 only screen if never screened. Done in GP.

50

Define colposcopy

procedure to closely examine cervix

51

How is the human papilloma virus transmitted?

Sexual contact. Increase risk with increased sexual partners

52

HPV is thought to be the main cause of?

CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia) thus cancer.

53

What can HPV cause?

warts/verrucas (low risk) or cervical cancer (high risk)

54

Who gets the HPV vaccination and why?

girls aged 12-13, offering protection against infection strains associated with 70% of cervical cancers

55

Define CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasm)

Microscopic lesion that affects the cervix that could potentially develop into cervical cancer if left untreated

56

What are the risk factors for cervical carcinoma?

HPV, smoking, nonattendance to CSP.

57

What are the symptoms of cervical carcinoma?

Abnormal discharge and bleeding

58

On examination how does the cervix look with cervical carcinoma?

Normal

59

What does the treatment of cervical ccarcinoma depend on?

Stage, local excision or radical hysterectomy +/- chemo

60

what are the 5 year survival rates for Ia stages of cervical carcinoma?

95-99%

61

What are the 5 year survival rates for late stages of cervical carcinoma?

less than 20%

62

What are endocervical polyps? What are symptoms and treatment?

Benign lesions, irregular vaginal bleeding 'spotting'. Can be removed at hysteroscopy.

63

Define menorrhagia

Heavy periods >80ml blood loss. Very common 1 in 20 consult gp a year, costs £7 million in prescriptions.

64

What can cause menorrhagia?

DUB (50%), fibroids, endometriosis, polyps.

65

What are the treatments for menorrhagia?

Mirena coil, mefanamic and tranexamic acid, COCP, Depo provera, endometrial ablation, hysterectomy

66

What is tranexamic acid used for?

Prevent excessive blood loss from trauma

67

What is another word for fibroids? What is it?

Leiomyomas. Common benign tumours of muscular fibrosis tissues.

68

What problem can have the symptoms heavy, painful periods, pelvic pain, distension

Fibroids

69

What condition can be asymptomatic and a major cause for infertility? / what could symptoms be?

Endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Abnormal discharge, pain or bleeding

70

Define endometriosis?

Endometrial tissue in the wrong location. Common benign condition.

71

What are the symptoms of endometriosis?

Heavy/painful periods, pelvic pain, painful sex.

72

What are the treatment options for endometriosis?

COCP, Mirena, Zoladex , surgery

73

What is Zoladex?

Man made hormone, overstimulates body's own hormone production -> Xproduction temp

74

What is endometrial cancer?

Cancer of the lining of the uterus

75

Symptoms of endometrial cancer?

Bleeding post-menopause so detected early.

76

Risk factors for endometrial cancer?

Nulliparity, high BMI, HRT, late menopause, oestrogen exposure.

77

How is endometrial cancer diagonsed?

Biopsy - pipelle (deviced used) othysteroscopy

78

Endometrial cancer treatment and survival rate?

TAH, BSO. Overall 20 year survival rate 80%

79

What is TAH?

Total abdo histerectomy

80

What is BSO?

Bilateral Salpingo oophonectomy (removal of women's entire reproductive tract)

81

Notes on follicular cysts?

Benign, very common, less than 6cm, often asymptomatic - no treatment needed

82

Notes on cystadenomas

Can be large fluid filled cysts, symptoms caused by pressure effect

83

Notes on benign mature Teratomas

Large cysts filled with solid substances

84

Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Symptoms, treatments, complications

Common, major cause of infertility. irregularbleeds, no periods, infertility. COCP, metformin, clomifene. ^CV & T2DM risks

85

Benign ovarian tumours normally occur at what age?

20-45

86

Malignant ovarian tumours normally occur at what age?

>45

87

Ovarian cancer notes

Often asymptomatic, present late when already spread. Poorer prognosis than endometrial cancer

88

What is a miscarriage?

Loss of pregnancy before 24 weeks, 15% of pregnancies, often no cause.

89

Classifications of miscarriages?

Threatened, inevitable, incomplete and missed

90

Risk factors of pregnancies?

^ age, multiple pregnancies, smoking, alcohol, connective tissue disorders and diabetes

91

Treatment options for miscarriages?

Conservative, misoprostol, vaccum suction under GA

92

Notes on ectopic pregnancies

Usually fallopian tube, 1% of pregnancies, can occur before period missed, ?emergency as rupture of pregnancy has ^mortality.

93

What levels are raised with ectopic pregnancies?

Beta-HCG levels on blood testing

94

What are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancies?

PID, coil, IVF, previous ecctopic or pelvic surgery