Lecture 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16 Deck (50):
1

what organism in the kingdom plantae doesn't have seeds or a vascular system

bryophytes

2

what organisms are bryophytes

mosses, liverworts, hornworts

3

what organism in the kingdom plantae have seeds and a vascular system

ferns, clubmosses, whisk ferns, horsetails

4

what are gymnosperms and angiosperms considered

seed plants

5

what are some of the main characteristics of bryophytes

seedless; nonvascular; most found in moist habitats; wide range of habitats; important initial colonizers

6

what are gametophytes

haploid generation, gamete-producing

7

what are sporophytes

diploid generation, spore-producing

8

what are the two stages of alternation of generation

gametophyte and sporophyte

9

how are bryophytes similar to vascular plants

presence of male and female gametangia with a protective layer; retention of zygote and embryo within archegonium; multicellular diploid sporophyte; multicellular sporangia; spores with walls containing sporopollenin; tissues produced by apical meristem

10

what is the strongest structure that is naturally made

sporopollenin

11

how are bryophytes different from vascular plants

no vascular tissues; conducting tissue cell walls not lignified; bryophytes have dominant gametophyte

12

what type of structure and reproductive parts do bryophytes have

no true stems, leaves, or roots; some have cuticle with structures analogous to stomata; usually attached to substrate by rhizoids

13

what is the function rhizoids

anchor plant; not used for water transport; often have fungal or cyanobacterial symbionts

14

how are cells connected in bryophytes

plasmodesmata

15

how do bryophytes reproduce

asexually by fragmentation and gammae

16

which cells are flagellated

sperm cells

17

what is the antheridium

male reproductive structure; usually stalked; sterile jacket layer surrounding spermatogenous cells; each spermatogenous cell forms one biflagellated sperm cell

18

what is the archegonium

female reproductive structure; flask-shaped; surround a single egg; release chemicals to attract sperm

19

where does fertilization occur

archegonium

20

what process does the zygote undergo

undergoes mitosis to generate embryo and eventually mature sporophyte

21

where is the plasmodesmata not located

no plasmodesmata between sporophyte and gametophyte

22

why is there no plasmodesmata between the sporophyte and gametophyte

Placenta- several transfer cells

23

what characteristics does a mature sporophyte have

foot in archegonium; seta (stalk); capsule (sporangium)

24

what is an embryophyte

term for all plants; multicellular, matrotrophic embryo; produce many-celled diploid sporophyte

25

what does sporopollenin do

most decay and chemical resistant biopolymer

26

which organisms form Protonemata

Protonemata are formed in all mosses and some liverworts but not in hornworts.

27

what are charophytes

class of green algae most closely related top plants

28

what are the three phyla in bryophytes

Phylum Hepatophyta; Phylum Anthocerophyta; Phylum Bryophyta

29

what phyla are liverworts in

hepatophyta

30

what are some characteristics of liverworts

small; most gametophytes develop directly from spores; some have protonema first

31

what are the two clades of liverworts

clades are either complex thalloid types or “leafy” simple types

32

what type of liverwort is merchantia

complex thalloid

33

what are some characteristics of merchantia

gametophytes unisexual; distinguished by gametophores; specialized spore dispersal mechanism; gemma cups (asexual reproduction) – produce gemmae

34

where are leafy liverworts found

abundant in tropics & subtropics (high humidity or rainfall
grow on leaves, bark, other plant surfaces)

35

what phyla are hornworts in

Anthocerophyta

36

what are the characteristics of gametophytes in hornworms

somewhat similar to thallose liverworts; cells usually have one large chloroplast; usually 1-2 cm across; some unisexual

37

what are the characteristics of sporophytes in hornworms

foot and capsule/sporangium; meristem between foot and sporangium (means that it can’t not branch); green with cuticle and stomata

38

what are the three classes of bryophyta

Sphagnidae (peat mosses); Andreaeidae (granite mosses);
Bryideae (“true mosses”)

39

what are some characteristics of peat moss

diverged early from main line of moss evolution; distributed worldwide; distinctive sporophytes; common asexual reproduction through fragmentation

40

how are peat mosses different than other mosses

unusual protonema; morphology of gametophyte (“moplike” head, leaves one cell layer thick, dead leaf cells fill with water) explosive spore dispersal (operculum)

41

what is the protonema

the first stage of development of the gametophyte

42

what is the operculum

cap that bursts open and allows spores to escape

43

what class does granite moss belong too

andreaeidae

44

what are some characteristics of granite moss

small blackish-green or reddish-brown tufts; grow on rocks in mountainous or arctic regions; unique spore discharge mechanism

45

what class does true moss belong to

Bryidae

46

what are some characteristics of true moss

resemble filamentous green algae (protonema) but have slanted cross walls; multicellular rhizoids
leaves normally only one cell layer thick

47

what are hydroids

water-conducting cells in stems of gametophytes and sporophytes; resemble tracheids but cell walls not lignified

48

what are leptoids

food-conducting cells

49

what is the sexual reproduction like in bryidae

unbranched sporophyte (embedded in gametophyte, placenta; usually have stomata; as matures, turns brown)
specialized spore dispersal (operculum bursts off; peristome)

50

The peristome is unique to which class

bryidae