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Flashcards in Lecture 4 Deck (32):
1

What is the first step of seed development after seed maturation

embryogenesis

2

What are the two different patterns of embryogenesis

apical-basal and radial

3

What are the three types of tissues in a plant

epidermis, vascular, and ground tissue

4

What are the three primary meristems

protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem

5

What is protoderm

future epidermis, formed by divisions parallel to the surface in outermost cells of embryo

6

What is procambium

future vascular tissue

7

What is ground meristem

future ground tissue

8

How is embryogenesis the same in all angiosperms

polarity established, embryo proper and suspensor

9

Which end will form the large basil cell during the first stage of division

micropylar end

10

Where does the suspensor develop during the first stage of division

micropylar end

11

Before there is an actual embryo, what are the cells called

proembryo

12

What does the suspensor do

supports the development of the embryo through providing it nutrients and growth hormones then undergoes apoptosis

13

What limits the suspensor from going into another embryo

the embryo proper

14

Where does the developing embryo get its nutrients during embryogenesis

from the parent plant

15

What three things happen during seed maturation

Funiculus seperates and the seed desiccates, Metabolism slows down, and seed coat hardens

16

How do monocots and eudicts differ with food storage during development

monocots store food as endosperm, eudicots have cotyledons that absorb all the endosperm and store it in their leaves

17

What is the epicotyl

short stem above the hypocotyl that has 1-2 foliage leaves and then a shoot apical meristem

18

What is the plumule

embyronic shoot that is covered by the protective coleoptile

19

What is the coleorhiza

a protective sheath that covers the radicle

20

What is the pericarp

the mature ovary wall

21

What is germination

Resumption of growth of the embryo, Cell enlargement and cell division

22

What four external factors do seeds need to grow

water, oxygen, temperature, and light

23

What is dormancy

Fail to germinate even in favorable conditions

24

What are some causes of dormancy

Physiological immaturity, and impermeable seed coat

25

What are some examples to break dormancy

Pass through digestive tract, Rainfall, Mechanical cracking, Heat of fire, Light from canopy opening

26

What is the first structure to emerge from a growing seed

taproot (primary root)

27

What are characteristics of taproot

first structure to emerge, produces lateral roots, and short lived in monocots

28

What is the definition of epigeous

the type of seed germination in which the cotyledons are carried above ground level

29

Explain the process of epigeous

when the hook reaches the soil surface, it straightens out and pulls the cotyledons and plumule up into the air

30

What is the definition of hypogeous

the type of seed germination in which the cotyledons stay underground

31

Explain the process of hypogeous

the epicotyl is the structure that elongates and forms the hook, this protects the young leaves and shoot tip, as the epicotyl straightens out the plumule is raised above the soil surface, since elongation occurs above the cotyledons, they remain in the ground where they eventually decompose

32

Where do monocots get their food during germination

get food from endosperm