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Flashcards in Lecture 5 Deck (40):
1

Where are apical meristems found

found in roots and shoot tips

2

What do apical meristems do

extend the plants body

3

What are leaf primordiums

future leaves

4

What are Axillary bud primordium

meristematic cells left behind by apical meristem that are inhibited by apical meristem can become “active” and form new apical meristem or flower/shoot.

5

What is the root caps function

to protect the apical meristem while the roots push through the soil

6

What is the difference between the initial cells and the derivative cells in apical meristem

Initials divide in such a way that one of the sister cells remains in the meristem as an initial and the other becomes a new body cell, or derivative.

7

What is indeterminate growth

a plant grows its whole life

8

What are the three processes of development

growth, morphogenesis, differentiation

9

What are the three groups of tissue systems in a plant

ground, vascular, and dermal

10

What is the difference between simple and complex tissues

Simple tissues have one cell type, while complex tissues have more than one cell type.

11

What tissues are in ground system

parenchyma tissue, collenchyma tissue, and sclerenchyma tissue

12

What is contained in the vascular system

xylem and phloem

13

What is contained in the dermal system

epidermis and periderm

14

What are characteristics of parenchyma cells

usually living at maturity, capable of mitosis, secondary walls, photosynthesis, storage, secretion, and transport

15

Where are totipotent cells located

in the parenchyma cells

16

What are totipotent cells

they retain the ability to transform into other cells (similar to stem cells)

17

Where are transfer cells located

in the parenchyma cells

18

What are transfer cells

Intense short distance solute transfer (next to phloem, xylem, reproductive and glandular structures…) Found near the vascular system

19

What are some characteristics of collenchyma tissues

living at maturity, support young, growing organs, commonly found under epidermis in leaves and around eudicot leaf veins

20

What are some characteristics of sclerenchyma tissue

dead at maturity, thick lignified secondary wall, strength and support plant parts, contains sclereids and fibers

21

What happens to the xylem after plant elongation

the procambium is destroyed

22

What is the xylem derived from

procambium and vascular cambium

23

Where are tracheary elements found

xlyem

24

What are principal conducting cells

elongated cells with secondary walls, no protoplasts at maturity, and may have pits

25

Where are vessel elements found

xylem

26

what are vessel elements

main conducting cell in angiosperms, contain perforations, trade-offs with perforations

27

what is differentiation

programmed cell death

28

What does the phloem transport

transports food, amino acids, lipids, hormones, floral stimulus, proteins, and viruses

29

where are sieve elements located

in the phloem

30

where are sieve cells located

gymnosperms

31

where are sieve-tuve elements located

angiosperms

32

what are sieve elements

primary walls, living protoplasts at maturity, callose

33

what are the companion cells connected to in the phloem

sieve-tube elements

34

what are the albuminous cells associated with in the phloem

sieve cells

35

What is the outermost cell layer of primary plant body

epidermis

36

what are the specialized cells in the epidermis

guard cells and trichomes

37

what are guard cells

they open and close the stomata

38

what are trichomes

increased reflection of solar radiation, absorption of water/minerals, protection from herbivory, glandular

39

what is the function of the periderm

replaces epidermis in secondary growth

40

what does the periderm comprise of

cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm