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Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (42):
1

When did angiosperms come around

at the end of the dinosaurs, 130 million years ago

2

What are the unique characteristics of angiosperms

flowers, closed carpels, double fertilization, 3-nucleate microgametophyte, 8-nucleate megagametophyte, stamen with two pairs of pollen sacs, sieve tubes with companion cells in phloem

3

What are the characteristics of angiosperms ancestor

lacked flowers, closed carpels, fruits, pollen with single aperture

4

What percent of angiosperms are not monocots and eudicots

3%

5

What are the two types of angiosperms that are not monocots or eudicots

magnoliids and orchids

6

What the three small, isolated families that arose prior to monocots and eudicots

waterlilies, amborellaceae, austrobaileyales

7

What was the name of the first angiosperm fossil

archaefructus

8

What are some characteristics of archaefructus

seeds enclosed in carpels/fruit, stood in shallow water, no sepals or petals

9

How did petals evolve

modified leaves that specialized to attract pollinators, or from stamens that became sterile

10

What often fuses on a flower

the petals to form tubular corolla, and sometimes stamens and/or sepals

11

Sepals have the same number of vascular bundles as what

leaves

12

How many vascular bundles do sepals have

one

13

How many vascular bundles do petals have

can have one or multiples

14

What is not distinct on a perianth

does not have distinct petals or sepals

15

How were early carpels unspecialized

no stigma area, not fused, usually more ovules than contemporary families

16

What are the flour evolutionary trends among flowers

1) few to many parts indefinite in numbers to few parts that are definite in number, 2) floral axis has become shortened so can't see spiral arrangement; parts often fused, 3) ovary from superior to inferior, perianth now differentiated, 4) radial symmetry to bilateral symmetry

17

What are some characteristics of Asteraceae

it is a eudicot, small epigynous flowers, inferior ovary, 5 stamens usually fused, 5 petals fused, sepals absent or pappus

18

What pattern do flowers mature in

a spiral

19

What are the two different flower shapes

disk or ray

20

What are the names of the two specialized families

Asteraceae and Orchidaceae

21

What are some characteristics of Orchidaceae

monocot, 3 fused carpels, inferior ovary, thousands of minute ovules, 1 stamen fused with style and stigma, modified petals and sepals, bilaterally symmetrical, huge range in size, clone for commercial use, some myco-heterotrophs

22

What is myco-heterotrophs

is a symbiotic relationship between certain kinds of plants and fungi, in which the plant gets all or part of its food from parasitism upon fungi rather than from photosynthesis

23

How does a closed carpel benefit a plant

protects it from herbivores

24

What type of pollination causes the most floral evolution

animal pollinators

25

What animal pollinator pollinates the most types of plants

bees

26

What colors of flowers do bees usually pollinate

blue and yellow with showy petals and distinctive patterns

27

What do butterflies and moths require to pollinate flowers

landing platforms

28

What type of flowers do birds pollinate

red, odorless, lots of nectar

29

What type of flowers do bats pollinate

dull colored, lots of nectar, open at night, very strong odor/musty scents

30

How have wind pollinated flowers evolved

no nectar, dull color, odorless, petals small or absent, large anthers, feathery stigmas, monoecious

31

What do flavonoids do

protect the flower from UV

32

What are the two types of flavonoids

anthocyanins and flavonols

33

What color does anthocyanins produce

based on pH, blue or red

34

What color does flavonols produce

white/ivory

35

What color does carotenoids produce

yellow, orange, red

36

Which type of fruit is most diverse

simple fruit

37

What are the two types of simple fruits

fleshy and dry

38

What three types of fleshy fruits are there

berries, drupes, and pomes

39

What are the two types of dry fruits

dehiscent and indehiscent

40

What are two characteristics of dehiscent fruits

open up at maturity and contains several seeds

41

What are two characteristics of indehiscent fruits

doesn't open up at maturity and contains one seed

42

What are the three seed dispersal agents

wind, water, animal