Flashcards in Lecture 17: Socio Emotional Development Deck (30)
What is attachment?
Strong affectional tie that humans feel toward special people in their lives
Forming strong relationships in 1st year is a major developmental task
Mother-infant or primary caregiver-infant relationship is the most studied
What is the ethological theory of attachment (Bowlby 1969)
Focuses on after 9months of age
It states that Infant's emotional tie to mother is an evolved response
(I.e. Babies are born with built-in behaviours that keep parent nearby)
What are the main features of infant attachment?
Selective attachment observed from 6-8 months to 18 months-2years
Intensified by anxiety provoking situations
Serves to reduce anxiety in stressful situations
Evidence of separation anxiety
Caregiver provides a secure base
What is the mother infant bond?
A set of genetically prewired behaviours which facilitate the basic processes of parenting
E.g. Caregivers natural tendency to hold, talk, smile and respond to infants cry
The motherese, infant directed speech
The release of oxytocin
What is the serve and return relationship?
A form of contingent reciprocity
This may be influenced by difficult temperament, parental mental illness
What are factors that affect the development of attachment?
Opportunity to establish close relationship
Quality of caregiving
What is the foundation of an infants later relationships?
Its emotional tie to mother
What has research shown on this attachment bond?
It is not only dependent on hunger
What is Harlow's study?
Conducted in 1958, 1965 with Zimmerman.
Tested primary drives theory in Rhesus monkeys.
There were two surrogate mother options
1) wire surrogate which fed the infant
2) cloth surrogate which did not feed the infant
What were the results of the Harlow study?
Despite wire surrogate supplying food, the infant monkeys formed an attachment with the cloth surrogate
What are the main patterns of attachment?
Insecure avoidant (15%)
Insecure resistant (10%)
What is insecure avoidant attachment?
Infants are not attached at all
Parental responsiveness is the lowest
What is insecure resistant attachment?
Anxious, ambivalent responses.
Infants first seek and then avoid caregiver
Parental responsiveness is inconsistent
What is secure attachment?
Use caregiver as a secure base
Parental responsiveness is highest
What is the result of secure attachment in infancy?
More complex exploratory behaviour (2years)
More high level symbolic play
Better cognitive skills in middle childhood&adolescence
Better social skills at preschool
What is the relationship between fathers and attachment?
Fathers' sensitive caregiving and involvement predicts secure attachment
Fathers spend more time in play
A Warm marital relationship supports parents' involvement with baby
What contributes to or detracts from secure patterns of attachment?
What is the best predictor of secure attachment?
A parents ability to perceive and interpret child's signals and intentions and respond appropriately and promptly will greatly increase secure patterns of attachment
How does family circumstance affect the secure pattern of attachment?
Family circumstances are major life changes
The transition affects parent-child interactions
A parent's experience affects the bonds established with children
How do cultural variations affect secure pattern of attachment?
German parents have been known to value independence
Whereas Japanese parents rarely leave infants in other peoples care
How do temperaments affect secure pattern of attachment?
Temperaments are early, stable dispositions in the domains of action, emotion attention and self regulation.
They appear basic.
They have two main dimensions:
Self regulation/effortful control
What are the types of infant temperament?
Infants with easy temperament (40%)
Infants with difficult temperament (10%)
Slow to warm up child (15%)
What are infants with easy temperament like?
Quickly establish regular routines in infancy, generally cheerful, adapt easily to new experiences
Elicit positive responses from caregivers and others
What are infants with difficult temperaments like?
Irregular daily routines,
slow to accept new experiences,
Tend to react negatively and intensely
Place children at risk for adjustment problems
Children Function worse when exposed to inept parenting, yet benefit most from good parenting
What are slow to warm up child infants like?
Inactive, shows mild, low key reactions to environmental stimuli
They are negative in mood, adjusts slowly to new experiences
What is the goodness of fit model?
Temperament and environment together can produce favourable outcomes
Who is at the most risk of child abuse and neglect?
The most vulnerable:
Infants and toddlers
Children with disabilities
Children whose parents have
Negative attributions towards child
What are the origins of child maltreatment?
Abusive parents isolated from public supports
Mistrust and avoid others
Few links between family and community
Society views violence as appropriate to solve problems
Laws against maltreatment but support for use of physical force in parent-child relations
Child abuse is rare where physical punishment is not accepted
What are the consequences of maltreatment?
Learning, adjustment and emotional problems
At school: non compliance, poor motivation
Cognitive immaturity interferes with achievement