Flashcards in Lecture 4: Drug Effects Deck (21)
What are the two large classes of the long term effects of amphetamine?
Social and emotional behaviour
What are the effects of cocaine on the brain?
After 3-4 mins, Cocaine starts to bind to striatum (the major input system of the basal ganglia)
After 10 mins, high feeling is gone
Whole experience is gone in 20-30mins
What is ecstasy?
A.k.a MDMA, EXC, Adam
Derivative of amphetamine (similar structure)
Synthesised in lab- make up varies from lab to lab
What are the short term effects of ecstasy?
Increase in serotonin -> reinforced feeling -> more likely to take again
Effects on the basal ganglia causes Stimulation
Effects on the hypothalamus causes a Reduced appetite
Which brain areas are affected by ecstasy?
Thinking, memory, hallucination, anxiety,
Connected to others, empathetic
Neocortex- cognition, memory and altered perceptions
Amygdala- limbic system - emotion
Hypothalamus- changes emotions
Serotonin nerve pathway (sleep, anxiety, mood, emotions, memory)
What are the two major pathways affected by ecstasy?
1) Brainstem -> neocortex -> limbic system
2) Spinal cord -> muscle activity
What is the primary target for ecstasy?
What effect does ecstasy have on the hippocampus?
Memory and mood
What are short term effects of ecstasy?
Sustained activation of more serotonin receptors, leads to elevated mood (antidepressant drug)
When ecstasy is gone, only a few of the serotonin receptors are activated, resulting in depression and anxiety
Feelings of restlessness, sleeplessness
Ecstasy users experience lost of serotonin receptors, transporters and nerve terminals
What are the adverse effects of ecstasy?
Hyperthermia - due to disruption of temperature regulation
What are life threatening effects of ecstasy?
Hyperthermia- high temperature can cause brain damage resulting in death
Arrhythmia- irregular heart beats, muscle breakdown
Renal failure- fluid depletion, reduced kidney function
What are long term effects of ecstasy?
Brain chemistry changes:
Reduced serotonin and serotonin metabolites
Brain structure changes:
Reduced serotonin transporters
Degeneration of serotonin terminals
What are teratogens?
Environmental agent that causes damages during prenatal period
The genetic makeup of the mother or developing organism may enable or hinder their ability to withstand harm
What are the effects of teratogens on a 3-8 week old foetus?
Toxic environmental agents can cause serious defects as this is the period when foundations are laid down (heart, eye, arms etc)
What did thalidomide result in?
Thalidomide was used to treat morning sickness in mothers, however it caused severe limb deformities in the babies
What is diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Drug which prevented miscarriages and did not seem harmful at first,
Baby later found to have problems with conception (miscarriages)
What are the effects of heavy caffeine intake during pregnancy?
Withdrawal symptoms from baby and mum
What are the effects of aspirin intake?
Infant death, poor motor development
What are the effects of illegal drugs such as cocaine, heroin, homeback, MSTI, methadone?
Cocaine babies have a higher risk of genital urinary tract, kidney and heart deformities as well as brain seizures
Cocaine daddy's : can have defects in some
What are the effects of tobacco during pregnancy?
Increased concentration of CO -> reduced nutrient uptake -> low birth weight, premature babies, miscarriage, infant death, developmental risks (long term impairments of learning etc)