Flashcards in Lecture1 Deck (19)
What is the WHO definition of health?
A complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
What are the Lay theories of health and illness?
1) general sense of well being >feeling
2) absence of symptoms of disease > symptom orientation
3) the things that a person who is physically fit is able to do > performance
What are the social representations of health?
Health as not ill, reserve, behaviour, physical fitness and vitality, psychosocial well being, and function
What are the leading causes of illness and mortality? And what do these causes mean to the health professional today?
Circulatory diseases (36%) and cancer (29%) are the leading causes of death today
Genetic predisposition (30%) and behavioural patterns (40%) are the major contributions to premature death
What are the consequences of health professions organised around a disease / medical model?
Identify and diagnose acute and chronic medical conditions only
Doesn't address clinical conditions that may have multiple behavioural social and environmental causes
What is the bio psychosocial model of health?
The idea that a number of factors including biology, social, cognitive, behavioural and emotional contribute and are influential to health and wellness
What is psychosomatic medicine?
The interdisciplinary study within the medical field of relationships of social, psychological and behavioural factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals
Who contributed to psychosomatic medicine?
Dunbar (1930) and Alexander (1940s-1950s)
What are examples of the biology aspect of the biopsychosocial model?
What are examples of the social factor in the biopsychosocial model?
What are examples of the psychological factors of the biopsychosocial model?
Cognitive (beliefs, attitudes, learning)
Behavioural (diet, smoking, safe sex)
Emotional (regulation, affect, mood)
What is the life course health and developmental model based on?
Evidence that early experiences have long term consequences for health
Health is a consequence of multiple factors operating in genetic, biological, behavioural, social and environmental contexts
These factors can change as a person develops from conception through adulthood across the life course
What are the four forms of development?
Physical, cognitive, emotional and social
What are the psychological cognitive factors of health?
Beliefs, attitude, learning
What are the psychological behavioural factors of health?
Diet, smoking, safe sex
What did BF Skinner develop?
Operant conditioning - reinforcing behaviours are more likely to be repeated
What did Albert Bandura develop?
Social learning theory - emphasises modelling and cognitive processes
What are Azjen and Fishbein's contributions to the health model?
Reasoned actions can predict several health behaviours
E.g. Smoking cessation, Intention to undergo mammography, Willingness to be an organ donor.