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What is the WHO definition of health?

A complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity

1

What are the Lay theories of health and illness?

1) general sense of well being >feeling
2) absence of symptoms of disease > symptom orientation
3) the things that a person who is physically fit is able to do > performance

2

What are the social representations of health?

Health as not ill, reserve, behaviour, physical fitness and vitality, psychosocial well being, and function

3

What are the leading causes of illness and mortality? And what do these causes mean to the health professional today?

Circulatory diseases (36%) and cancer (29%) are the leading causes of death today

Genetic predisposition (30%) and behavioural patterns (40%) are the major contributions to premature death

4

What are the consequences of health professions organised around a disease / medical model?

Identify and diagnose acute and chronic medical conditions only
Doesn't address clinical conditions that may have multiple behavioural social and environmental causes

5

What is the bio psychosocial model of health?

The idea that a number of factors including biology, social, cognitive, behavioural and emotional contribute and are influential to health and wellness

6

What is psychosomatic medicine?

The interdisciplinary study within the medical field of relationships of social, psychological and behavioural factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals

7

Who contributed to psychosomatic medicine?

Dunbar (1930) and Alexander (1940s-1950s)

8

What are examples of the biology aspect of the biopsychosocial model?

Pathogens/toxins
Genetic variability
Anatomy
Physiology

9

What are examples of the social factor in the biopsychosocial model?

Family
Society
Relationships
Emvironment

10

What are examples of the psychological factors of the biopsychosocial model?

Cognitive (beliefs, attitudes, learning)

Behavioural (diet, smoking, safe sex)

Emotional (regulation, affect, mood)

11

What is the life course health and developmental model based on?

Evidence that early experiences have long term consequences for health

Health is a consequence of multiple factors operating in genetic, biological, behavioural, social and environmental contexts

These factors can change as a person develops from conception through adulthood across the life course

12

What are the four forms of development?

Physical, cognitive, emotional and social

13

What are the psychological cognitive factors of health?

Beliefs, attitude, learning

14

What are the psychological behavioural factors of health?

Diet, smoking, safe sex

15

What did BF Skinner develop?

Operant conditioning - reinforcing behaviours are more likely to be repeated

16

What did Albert Bandura develop?

Social learning theory - emphasises modelling and cognitive processes

17

What are Azjen and Fishbein's contributions to the health model?

Reasoned actions can predict several health behaviours
E.g. Smoking cessation, Intention to undergo mammography, Willingness to be an organ donor.

18

What did Schater & Singer contribute to the health model?

Cognitive judgements (attributions) are a critical part of emotional experience
Cognitive appraisals influence emotion
Mood and emotion can affect through and memory